The universe (Latin: universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. While the spatial size of the entire universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the size of the observable universe, which is currently estimated to be 93 billion light-years in diameter. In various multiverse hypotheses, a universe is one of many causally disconnected constituent parts of a larger multiverse, which itself comprises all of space and time and its contents; as a consequence, ‘the universe’ and ‘the multiverse’ are synonymous in such theories.
The Hujjat is must in every time, either publicly known or hidden from public for reasons, as Ameerul Mo'mineen (AS) said (Nahjul Balaghah, 497).
After Prophet Easa (AS) the Hujjat was Sham'oon Ibn Hammon al-Safa, then Yahya ibn Zakaria, the Munthir, then Sulaimah, then Burdah, then Muhammad (SAWA).(Amaali al-Tousi, 443)
In al-Kaafi 1:177 you can find many Hadeeths in this regard.
Khalib ibn Sinan has been mentioned as a prophet fifty years before Prophet Muhammad ( Rawdhat al-Kaafi 342).
Abu Talib (AS) was from deputies (AWSIYAA') after the prophets.
Ameerul Mo'mineen Ali (AS) was asked: Who was the last Wasi ( Deputy) before Muhammad? He replied: My father. Al-Ghadeer 7:389 from Dhiaul Alameen by al-Fotouni.
Thank you for your question. The nature of hypothesizing is such that many things are hypothetically possible. However, the proofs for the existence of God, based on causality or on the nature of possibility and necessity are such that they only prove the existence of one first cause or one necessary being. In order to posit more than one God, there would need to be proof of that.
If the existence of God is derived from an inductive proof that there is order in the universe, then unless some Attributes of God are presupposed, the limitation of such an argument is that while it establishes the existence of a powerful, intelligent being, it does not prove that that being is One. Islamic philosophers do not seek to establish that from this proof either. But by the same token, it also doesn't establish more than one being and so that would have to be supposed. What it argues for is at least one being. However, what is misunderstood here is the conception of what is meant by the Oneness of God and assuming that it is numerical oneness rather than the lack of any limitation.
The Oneness of God is established through our conception of Him, and this is derived from the scriptural sources that describe Him as without limitations such that even the conception of a second is not possible. This method of argumentation is perfectly acceptable and is why the philosophy of religion discusses the conception of God before His existence as it is important to first know what is being established. In this sense, if God is unlimited, it is logically impossible for there to be two or more gods and that would contradict the concept of an unlimited Being.
May you always be successful
Thank you for your question. This is traditionally answered by the using the principle of cause and effect and so for the universe or part of it to exist it would have needed an external cause. As for the hypothesis that the universe created itself, it is completely opposed to the presuppositions of Islamic philosophy and so an argument is not even required to reject it. Rather, the onus of proof is on the person asserting the claim and of course this is something outside of the realm of proof. As a presupposition in itself it therefore can simply be rejected.
May you always be successful
A good sermon to read regarding this is the 1st sermon of Nahjul Balagha
This is one of those questions that has been asked for thousands of years and maybe it is one we are all meant to ponder on. However, here are a couple thoughts:
* The famous narration that "I [Allah] was a hidden treasure and I wished to be known, so I created the creation."
* Insofar as the attribute of the Creator (al-Khaliq) is one way of describing Allah, one might say that it is an innate tendency of Allah to create, just as a human artist often feels compelled to create. So, simply put, Allah creates because it is the divine nature to make things. Some people view creation as a perpetual matter; that is, every moment, Allah is re-creating creation, not just as something that happened once for the universe.
* Some people also say it is part of divine mercy to create sentient beings. Even though life can be difficult, we wouldn't even be able to say it is difficult if we weren't created with intellect and senses.
It is an excellent question to explore and I wish you the best in your pondering and research!
as salam alaikum
Allah is All-Powerful and He does whatever He wishes. Therefore He created the universe because He willed, and so it was.
With prayers for your success.
The reason of our creation by Allah is to shower on us His Mercy and bounties.
Our existence is a great bounty from our Creator Allah (SWT). All human beings know that their life is the most important for them, and it is in fact a bounty from Allah (SWT).
The reality is that the universe in all its stages and forms was created by The Creator, Allah (SWT). Different forms are created and and do not change this basic fact that it was created by Allah, The Creator.
The above answer is an excellent theological argument. Additional thoughts:
It is difficult to convince someone whose mind is already made up. If the prophets could not convince all people during their lifetimes, we can't have any hope of that! Sometimes the best thing you can do is just to try try or even just simply be an example with your faith and differing viewpoint.
It should be self-evident that the very fact that accidents can create order and beauty (such as in fractal geometry) itself requires a higher intelligence and some sort of plan.
I suspect that many astronomers/cosmologists who profess atheism and who reject religion actually don't wholly reject the idea that the universe could have a creative force, inherent meaning, or inherent purpose. I think it is near-impossible to study the heavens without having some sort of awe and sense of mystery. I think it is more common that they reject the form of organized religion they were exposed to growing up because it was unsophisticated, insufficient, or unhealthy. For instance, sometimes, in some places, children are given the mental picture of God as a bearded, angry white man. Or, they may have had negative experiences with provincialness or hypocrisy in a religious community. Religion may simply not have been discussed with a depth that was compelling. Of course this isn't everyone, but I think it happens more often than not. Otherwise, throughout most of history, science was associated with theism or some sort of religious/metaphysical belief. Certain, it was in the Islamic heritage.
Here is an interesting podcast about Jesuit astronomers. Of course, it is from a Christian perspective, but it discusses their work as a way of finding God in all things, and I am sure it is possible to compare and contrast issues with an Islamic perspective. https://onbeing.org/programs/guy-consolmagno-george-coyne-asteroids-stars-and-the-love-of-god/ Some interesting quotations from it:
* It’s only human beings that have this curiosity to understand: What’s that up in the sky? How do we fit into that? Who are we? Where do we come from? And this is a hunger that is as deep and as important as a hunger for food because if you starve a person in that sense, you’re depriving them of their humanity. And being able to feed this, being able to make a person more human or make them welcome into the great adventure of the human race for the 20th century — going to the moon, things like that — that was really important to them and really important to everybody I talked to. And suddenly — oh, that’s why we do this.
* Those classic scientists believed that understanding the natural world was the best way to understand the mind of its maker.
as salam alaikum
the order present in the universe is an empirical fact that no sound mind can dispute. The earth, the sky, the clouds, the rain, the sun, the moon, etc., and all the living beings on the planet, all interact with each others and works according to specific sets of rules and criterions. This indicates, at least indirectly, the presence of a Creator who created and sustains the world.
Also, if the world was just the product of accidents we may ask ourselves: who/what created those accidents? Who/what put them into motion? A thing cannot be created by itself because it would imply its existence before its existence which is an impossibility. We cannot also suppose that physical matter always existed with no cause because corporeality depends on temporary qualities such place, color, movement, stasis, etc. that need to be caused by some external agent (otherwise they would be already attached to their subjects). We conclude therefore that there is one Creator for the whole universe upon Whom the whole creation depends.
With prayers for your success.
Thank you for your question. While the enactment God's Will is not limited by time, in His dealing with creation He chooses to work through processes and physical laws such as cause and effect. So while He can do whatever He wants in an instant, He chooses not to do that in every instance.
May you always be successful
It is possible that Allah created the entire universe just for humanity; however, there are some hints that there are other creations out there and we simply don't know them. For instance the Qur'an speaks of the things that we do not know. A narration from Imam Ali (A) mentions that the other stars in the sky are cities or civilizations (mada'in) like the cities on earth. I think it is reasonable to assume that in the vast universe there are other beings, whether or not we will ever know of them during the span of existence of humanity, God knows best. However, what can be said is that what we have on earth is comfortable for us - especially if we consider the conditions of other planets like Jupiter - and that part of the miracle of creation is that we can look out at the sky and stars from our own vantage point and see it perfect for ourselves, in terms of timekeeping, light, heat, etc, and yet it can still host many other creations.