Eternity in common parlance is an infinitely long period of time. In classical philosophy, however, eternity is defined as what exists outside time while sempiternity is the concept that corresponds to the colloquial definition of eternity. Eternity is an important concept in many religions, where the god or gods are said to endure eternally.
No doubt this world will end. This is clearly mentioned in Quran (in many verses) and Hadeeth. No one can claim that this world is eternal.
Eternal Hell and Heaven
1. The Eternal Paradise for the pious believers is the Grace from Allah and a fulfilment of His promise to the pious believers as He said that the pious believers will be in the Paradise forever
Sura 3, verses 15, 136, 198
Sura Nisaa, verses 13, 57, 122
Sura Al- Maa'ida Verse 85
Sura al-An'aam Verse 128
Sura al-Tauba Verses 22, 72, 89, 100
Sura Hood Verse 108
Sura Ebraheem Verse 23
Sura al-Kahf Verse 108
Sura Taha Verse 76
Sura al-Furqan verse 76
Sura al-Ankaboot Verse 58
Sura al-Ahqaf Verse 14
Sura al-Fath Verse 05
Sura al-Hadeed Verse 12
Sura al-Mujadalah Verse 22
Sura al-Tahabun Verse 09
Sura al-Palaq Verse 11
Sura al-Baiyena Verse 08
2. Eternal Hell and Punishment is not for every sinner. Hadeeth says that the majority of those who go to hell fire will be released from it after they face the punishment of their bad deeds which they insisted on till death. In the narration everyone who has got any part of faith in Allah will never remain in the hell fire forever. Those who will remain in the hell fire are the enemies of Allah and enemies of mankind.Those who insisted on denying the facts and denying the truth and those who have their intention to continue doing wrong and denying the truth even if they remain alive forever. Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (a.s.) was asked by someone why some people will remain in the hell fire forever and why the believers in the Paradise forever. In the reply Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (a.s.) said the reason for that those who had decided in their intentions that they will continue denying the truth and doing wrong even if they remain forever in the worldly life they will face the eternal hell fire and those believers who had intention in their life to obey Allah they will get their intention to obey Allah as long as they remain in life will get the reward in the Paradise forever and the Imam recited this verse “قُل كُلٌّ يَعمل على شاكلته Qol Kullun Ya’malo Ala Shakilatih” Say everyone acts upon His way. Imam said that the intention of the bad people and the intention of the good people resulted in their result either in Hell Fire or Paradise. (Elal al-Sharaa’i علل الشرائع Page 523.).
3. Even in the worldly laws and rules of punishment, a minute of a murder crime because of anger is punished by whole life of imprisonment or even by life sentence. Those who killed innocents and had the intention to kill when ever it suits their arrogance, will be in hellfire for longer periods.
4. We have not yet witnessed the Mercy of Allah on The Day of Judgement and we don’t know it’s limits. Allah’s Mercy and Forgiveness is much greater than our imagination. We know that : any one who does evil will face the results of it. (5:123).
5. Eternal hell is not for all sinners but only those criminals of mankind who committed worst crimes and intended to always commit crimes forever. All sinners who did good and bad will get the Mercy of Allah even after entering the hell if they enter it, according to their good deeds or the Shafa’ah (intercession) which can save them.
Allah is The Most Merciful, The Most Compassionate. We are been ordered to recite and repeat these names of Mercy at least forty times in our daily obligatory Prayers ( Sura Al-Hamd contains four times of remembering the Mercy of Allah in Arrahmaan Arraheem, and it it must to recite Al-Hamd at least two times in the first and second Rak'ats in each of the five obligatory daily Prayers)
Allah The Most Merciful never punishes His creatures whom He created to shower on them His Mercy. Allah's Mercy is much greater than our imaginations. All of us are overwhelmed by His Mercy in every moment. Enemies of Allah are those who damage the life of others and insist on their crimes ignoring and rejecting Allah's continuous invitations to them to repent and leave their criminal behaviour, will be entitled to be punished. Punishment for such enemies of humanity is mentioned in Quran and Hadeeth. Eternal torment is the result of their evil intention to continue committing the crimes against humanity as far as they can. We don't know the limits of the Mercy of Allah and how He will deal with them. What we know for sure is Allah is the source of Mercy and does not punish but only those who are the worst enemies of humanity who committed worst crimes and insisted and remained criminals till death and had the intention to go on in their evil acts.
In the Qur'an, when used alone, the word "nafs" is not really used as a synonym for soul (in the sense of the soul as a non-corporeal entity distinct from the body). Rather, it is usually used to refer to the complete self; for instance, in phrases like "bring yourselves" or "they deceive themselves".
(Of course, this distinction can be blurry based on how one perceives the nature of the soul and the relationship between the soul and the body.)
This is different from the use of the word "nafs" outside the Qur'an, in that "nafs" in other texts or discussions is often used to mean specifically the immaterial part of the human.
Therefore, when the Qur'an says "kullu nafsin dha'iqat al-mawt", it means that all people will taste death in a holistic sense, not specifically that all souls will.
However, since the soul and body experience things simultaneously, the soul will also taste the experience of death, just as it experiences other things occurring via the body.
If one understands death to mean "transfer from realm to realm", rather than "annihilation", then definitely the soul will experience transfer from realm to realm upon death.
Some say that we will have a different type of body as a vehicle for the soul in the barzakh and in the Hereafter. Therefore, if death is also understood to mean "transfer from one type of body to another", the soul will also taste death in that way.
So it is not incorrect to say that all souls will taste death; the usage of the word in the Qur'an is simply more expansive than that.
Note that compound phrases in the Qur'an such as nafs al-'ammarah (the bestial soul), nafs al-lawwamah (the blaming soul), and nafs al-mutma'innah (the content soul which God calls to Paradise) refer more to immaterial aspects of the human being.
Thank you for your question. Wajib al-wujud or the Necessary Existent is that existent which does not depend on any other existent for its existence. The Absolute Existent is that existent that has no limitation what so ever. These attributes and others are discussed in transcendental philosophy and mysticism.
May you always be successful
Thank you for your question. This is a scientific issue not specifically directly discussed in any scriptural sources that i know of. It is interesting as it would mean that energy is metaphysical, but it would have to be proven before any type of research into its implications would be carried out.
May you always be successful.