The Kaaba (أَلكَعْبَة al-kaʿbah), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Arabic: أَلكَعْبَة أَلمُشَرَّفَة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (Arabic: أَلمَسْجِد أَلحَرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the most sacred site in Islam. It is considered by Muslims to be the Bayt Allāh (Arabic: بَيْت الله, "House of God").
Yes it is permissible to look at the Ka'bah during Qunoot because looking at the Ka'bah is a worship by itself. Nevertheless, it is always recommended during Qunoot of Prayers to look at your palms (inner side of your hands).
Yes, we have many Hadeethes in Shia and Sunni books that Al-Bayt Al-Ma'moor is in the sky exactly above the Ka'bah and it is the Ka'bah of the sky and the angles of the sky perform Tawaf around it. Shaikh Al-Sadouq (Great Shia scholar) narrated this in 'Elal Al-Sharaa'i , V. 2, P. 91 and Al-Soyooti (Well known Sunni scholar) narrated it in his well known book Al-Durr Al-Manthour , V.6, P. 117.
The birth of Imam Ali (AS) inside the Ka’bah has been narrated
by many of leading Sunni Ulama in their books. Today when you hear from some enemies of Ahlul Bayt (AS) denying or doubting this fact, you should advise them to
refer to the leading Sunni Ulama who have confirmed the fact that Ali
(AS) was born inside the Ka’bah. These are just few example:
1. Al-Haakim al Nisaburi in al-Mustadrak Ala al-Saheehayn (Hadeeth
no. 6098): He stated that the narrations are too many that Fatimah
Bint Asad gave birth to Ameerul Mo’meneen Ali ibn Abi Talib
(Karramallah Wajha) inside the Ka’bah.
2. The well known Sunni scholar Allamah Badakhshi in his book
Miftaah An Najah (page no. 20), he stated that no one was born inside
the Bait al Haram except Ali ibn Abi Talib and no one will be born
after him and this is a special tribute gifted by Allah (SWT) to Ali
ibn Abi Talib (AS).
3. The famous Egyptian scholar and author Abbas Mahmood al-Aqqaad in
his book Abkariat al-Imam Ali (AS) (page no. 43) he stated that Ali
(AS) was born inside the Ka’bah.
4. Sunni scholar known by Ali Fikhri al-Qahiri in his book Ehsan
al-Qasas (vol. III pg. 178) stated Ali (AS) was born in Makkah in
al-Bait al-Haraam in the year 32 after the birth of the prophet
5. Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki in his book al-Fusoul al-Mohimmah (pg.
30) stated: Ali (AS) was born in Makkah inside al-Bait al-Haram
6. Al-Kunji al-Shafi'ei in his book Kifaayat at-Talib (pg. 407)
stated : “Ameerul Mo’meneen Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) was born in Makkah
inside Baitullah al-Haram”.
7. Al-Haakim al-Nisaburi in Kitab Ma’refat al-Sahabah (Hadeeth no. 6044).
8. Al-Masoodi in Murooj al-Dhahab (vol. II pg. 349).
9. The famous Persian Sunni poem Sa’adi al-Sirazi
10. Al-Dahlawi in Izaalat al-Khafaa’ (pg. 251)
11. Al-Shablanji in Noor al-Absaar (vol. 85)
12. Al-Safoori in Nuzhat al-Majaalis (vol. II pg. 454)
13. Al-Halabi in Al-Seerah al-Halabiyah (vol. I pg. 139)
14. Ibn Al-Batreeq in his book al-Omdah (pg. 8)
15. Al-Tustari in Arjah al-Mataalib (vol. 388, Lahore edition)
16. Abu Zakariyah al-Asadi in Tareekh al-Mosil (pg. 58, Dr Habeebah in Cairo.
17. Khairul Deen Afandi al-Aaloosi in Ghaliyat al-Mawa’idh (vol. II pg. 89,
18. Allamah Bakatheer al-hadhrami in Waseelat al-Maal (pg. 145)
19. Ibn al-Jawzi in Tathkirat Khawas al-Ummah (vol.113)
20. Ahmad bin Mansour al-Kazarooni in Miftah al-Futooh (pg. 48)
21. Noor al-Deen al-Halabi al-Sha’fei in Insan al-Uyoon (vol. I pg.221,
Mustafa al-Baabi edition in Egypt)
22. Ashraf Ali in Riyadh al-Jinan (vol. I pg 111, Bombay edition)
23. al-Kahlani al-San’ani in al-Rawdhah an-Nadiyah (pg. 89,
Ansari in Delhi)
24. Abdul Rahman Al-Safoori in al-Mahasin al-Mujtameah (pg. 156)
25. Kamaluddin bin Talha as-Shafe’ei in Matalib al-Saool (pg. 11)
26. The well known Egyptian scholar Tawfeeq Abu 'Alam in his book Ahlul Bayt (pg. 189, 1st edition of 1390 AH).
And many others.
Yes. The Qibla of all the prophets was towards The Ka'bah since the beginning. The direction towards Baitul Maqdis was during exceptional time when the Ka'bah was full of idols of Mushriks. On the month of Rajab of the second year after Hijra, Allah (SWT) ordered the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) to pray towards Ka'bah instead of Baitul Maqdis.
Sajda (Prostration) on carpet is Not permissible unless you are under dangerous situations where Taqiyya becomes permissible for you to avoid possible danger or harm.
The idea that the Ka'ba is the "House of God" is metaphorical. It is called the "House of God" because it is an ancient center of worship and a sacred land with special spiritual characteristics that people can physically go to to have a stronger sense of God or the spiritual world. Also, according to narrations, angels frequently visit it.
However, according to mainstream Islamic belief, God does not exist in any physical place or time. This is because the universe is created, and God is not material or confined by space or time. God is aware of everything in the universe and in control of it but not actually in it. (That is, a refutation of pantheism)
Some might say that the universe is a manifestation of God or Gods' attributes, or that material creation is dependent on God for its continued existence, but God is not actually inhabiting the universe. Indeed, in the Qur'an, God introduces the possibility of multiple universes (since "God of all the worlds" can also mean "God of all the universes") and speaks of the creation and destruction of the universe. Of course, sometimes mystics and others have their own ideas about the nature of the divine.
The Ka’ba is situated on the center of the earth. This is a miracle which has been confirmed and admitted by non Muslim scientists. No birds and planes can fly over the Ka’ba because of that miracle.
There is a book entitled Sustainable Vernacular Architecture edited by Ali Sayigh that has a few lines on how the Kaaba is very like particular houses in Portugal called 'saloio' houses (believed to have been influenced by Middle Eastern architecture). Maybe Ali Sayigh could have more to say on this. I will try to find his contact iA.
Because of some floods some parts of Ka'bah was destroyed. The tribes repaired the walls and it was time to install the Hazarul-Aswad in its place. Each tribe wanted to acquire this honor so a war was near to take place until Abu Umayyah the oldest man in the Quraish tribe suggested that we should let the first man who enters the Masjidul-Haraam decide what to do in this regard. Muhammad s.a.w.a was that man and he was known for his honesty and authenticity among the people of that time.
He prescribed to bring a cloth and put the Hajarul-Aswad inside it and all tribes take one corner of the cloth and at last he himself put the stone in its due place.
So no war took place because of his wise decision.