A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a means by which organizational policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy.
Khums is to be paid when your khums day comes, and you have savings, irrespective of whether this comes from work or from support allowance, as long as it belongs to you.
And Allah knows best.
It is allowed for every Muslim to serve his country in any field which does not do injustice on others. Your country's interest should be in the interest of people and should not support the aggressors who might be friendly with some of your political leaders. You as a Muslim are obliged to serve peaceful people in your country and every where, and never support injustice. Our case as Muslims is the justice for all human beings and even for everything. Justice for people of Palestine for example, might not be an aim for many western politicians, but we must do everything possible in peaceful and legal way to support justice. Muslim officer must be an ethical officer and not just a blind officer.
This question should come from the concerned government and the reply depends on the sect that they follow. In general, non Muslims living under Muslims rule have their freedom of worshiping provided it does not propagate among Muslims, polytheism or any anti Islam ideas.
Buying government Bonds is permissible for investment if you are sure that the money or any part of it will not be invested in unlawful projects like weapons, alcohol,gambling, usury,etc.
Muslim is allowed to receive legal cash assistance and social services if he is entitled to it as a citizen in non Muslim countries from non Muslim governments. Muslim is required also to serve his country and society in every possible way as Islam teaches serving people especially your neighbors.
According to Quranic Verse 5:51, Muslim is not allowed to be a blind follower or blind servant for non Muslims who aim to weaken Islam and Muslims and oppress them.
Muslim public officer is obliged and responsible as a Muslim to serve his country and society in every possible way provided he does not take part or support injustice, discrimination and any unlawful act. Things which are legal in non Muslim countries but forbidden in Islam like abortion, alcohol, etc, must be avoided by the Muslim officer. You can leave it for other officers who do not have religious obligations against it.
Haraam is Haraam whether you are an officer or not. We as Muslims are responsible to avoid Haraam in every possible way.
Our leading scholars always advise Muslims to abide to the laws which do not contradict with Islamic teachings. Muslim should respect the laws of the country where he lives in.
If the amount is been invested in lawful business away from unlawful business e.g. alcohol, pork, usury etc, then the income from it will be lawful. Such income can not be fixed by a percentage from the capital, but it must depend on the profit if any.
Fixed amounts given by non Muslims is allowed for the Muslim to receive and utilize in lawful needs and aims.
No government has the right to legalize any act which was committed by any ruler if the act was away from the real teachings of the Prophet ( SAWA).
Muslim governments should follow the real teachings of the Prophet Muhammad and his Holy Progeny who narrated and practices his teachings.
Yes it is allowed for every Muslim to invest his money after being sure that money will not be invested in unlawful business i.e. alcohol, interest, etc.
Khums will be applicable on the investment on the date of Khums.