Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة, al-ʻarabiyyah, or عَرَبِيّ) or is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE. It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia and in the Sinai Peninsula.
There are many online learning Arabic courses. Some of them are free while others are paid. There are also Application for learning Arabic which be obtained from App Store and other sites. You can search and select a suitable course for you. I can not suggest a specific course for you because it depends on your level in Arabic language and in your time and task in learning Arabic.
Obviously, learning any language needs practicing, so, try to practice whatever little you learn so that you will be more able to learn more.
Ahlul Bayt Library.
Fasting during the whole month of Ramadan is obligatory on every Muslim even if they don't know how to perform Prayers properly. You must fast and pray as much as you know and must learn as much as you can.
You should take help from those Muslims who know how to pray or pray with congregation.
It is ok to recite that way. After all, there have been many Muslims who can't read at all and still recite from memory.
Still there is a certain blessing that the actual Arabic script of the Qur'an is said to hold and it is narrated that looking at the Qur'an is a type of worship; my understanding is that this involves the actual Arabic letters. So it is good to learn to read the Arabic script if you can. There are a lot of self-study materials available today.
But if you can't, that is also ok too.
As far as there being an English speaking curriculum, or madarasa is concerned, in Najaf al-Ashraf, I do not think there is such an establishment.
However, I also do not recommend that if you were interested in joining the Hawzah, that you study only in English. It is imperative that a Hawzah student not only learns Arabic, but also masters it. Ultimately, you are going to be working not just with Arabic Hawzah texts, but also the Quran and hadith, and with deeper insight and stronger comprehension.
You will be able to pick up on the language quickly, and learn it like how all other non-Arabs have learnt it.
As for information, I have a FB page where I have put together some sources and material for Hawzah studies. Hopefully it will be of benefit:
With prayers for your success.
There is also reward in reading the translation.
It is ok to give the baby a Japanese name.
Congratulations and best wishes with the birth!
Understanding the meaning of Du'a is better than reading with out understanding.
Sawab depends on the intention and degree of the sincerity and dedication, not merely on the language.
The prayers (Salah) must be recited in Arabic as the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) recited and ordered all Muslims: Pray as you saw me praying صلوا كما رأيتموني أصلي
If you mean by prayers the supplications (Du'a), it is allowed to recite Du'a in your preferable language. Even you are allowed to read within the Salah supplications in your own language, but that supplications should be along with Arabic parts of Salah.
In short, Salah must be in Arabic but Du'a can be in your referable language.
as salam alaikum
a translation of the Qur'an is not the Qur'an therefore it is necessary to recite it in the Arabic language during the salat. Other intentional extra-words would invalidate the prayer. It is advisable to try as much as possible to take familiarity with the Qur'an in order to always feel in harmony with it.
With prayers for your success.
It is good to understand what you say in prayers, and that can be easily achieved by translating the prayers sentences to your language. Nevertheless, prayers are obligatory on every Muslim whether he or she understands Arabic or not.
Some people pronounce it differently due to their accent or what they heard growing up. For instance, in Persian, one says "Ramazan" when talking and not "Ramadan" because it is how it is said in the language, just as in English people often say "Izlaam" not "Islaam". For things not involving Qur'an, it doesn't really matter.
However, when reciting Qur'an, it is good to try to pronounce the letters as correctly as possible. If a person is genuinely unable to pronounce a letter correctly, it is ok, but they should try.