The Tashahhud (Arabic: تَشَهُّد), meaning the testimony of faith, is the portion of the Muslim prayer where the precant sits on the ground facing the qibla, glorifies God, and greets the messenger and the righteous people of God followed by the two testimonials. The recitation is followed by an invocation of the blessings and peace upon the prophet known as Salawat or Darood.
Tashahhud is an obligatory part of Salah which must be performed exactly as the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) taught us to perform according to the authentic Prophetic Hadeeth (Perform Salah as you saw me performing Salah) (Sallo Kama Ra'aitomooni Osalli)صَلّوا كما رأيتموني أُصَلّي.
Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) taught his followers all details of Salah including Tashahhud. ( Amaali Al-Shaikh Al-Sadouq , page 498 narrating from Hammaad Bin Easa).
Tashahhud must have ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALA MUHAMMAD WA AALI MUHAMMAD which mentions Imam Ali (AS) and all the Infallible Ahlul Bayt (AS).
We are not allowed to add on Tashahhud more than what Ahlul Bayt (AS) taught us.
We can mention the name of Imam AALI (AS) in the form of Du'a within our Salah after Tashahhud, like saying : ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALA AMEERIL MO'MINEEN. Du'a is always good within our Salah and not only in Qunoot.
By this Du'a, we will be mentioning the holy name of Ameerul Mo'mineen (AS) and not adding on the Tashahhud which was been taught to us by Ahlul Bayt (AS).
We have option to recite with clear voice (Jahr جهر) or whispering (Ikhfaat إخفات) in Tashahhud and Salam and Thikr of Rokoo' and Thikr of Sujood in any prayer.
Thank you for your question. It is not obligatory to recite the tashahud loudly in prayers.
May you always be successful
Azan is recommended while Tashahhud is obligatory. Tashahhud is part and parcel of Namaz and if Tashahhud is wrongly said, Namaz will be void and invalid.
Tashahhud was taught to us by the Proohet Muhammad (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) with ordering us to (Pray as you saw me praying) صلّوا كما رأيتموني أصلّي
Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) explained to one of his students; Hammad Ibn Easa all the steps of Namaz including Tashahhud ( ASHHADU ANLA ELAAHA ILLALLAH WAHDAHU LAA SHAREEKA LAH WA ASHHADU ANNA MUHAMMADAN ABDUHU WA RASOOLUH ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALA MUHAMMAD WA AALI MUHAMMAD as we read it in al-Kaafi, 3/311.
We are not allowed to add to Tashahhud but we are allowed to pray any prayers as supplication after Tashahhud including the names of the Infallible Imams like ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALA AMEERIL MO'MINEEN.
No. We don't have any authentic evidence that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) or any of his holy Progeny Ahlul Bayt (As) moved index finger during Tashahhud in prayers.
None of the authentic Hadeeths suggest that.
The dhikr that should be recited in sajdatay al-sahw are:
بِسْمِ اللهِ وَ بِاللهِ، اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَیْكَ أَيُّـهَا النَّبِيُّ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَ بَـرَکَاتُهُ
bismillāhi wa billāhi, assalāmu ʿalayka ayyuhan nabiyyu wa raḥmatullāhi wa barakātuh.
In the name of Allah and by Allah. Peace be upon you O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and His blessings (be upon you too).
I also have a tutorial that could be of benefit as well:
And Allah knows best.
If you realize during the Salah that you forgot to recite Tashahhud, your Salah is valid but you need to recite the Tashahhud immediately after Salah before saying any word.
If you realised that mistake after doing something else, your Salah is valid.
Tashahhud is obligatory but it is not Rokn. Rokn is the most important obligatory with out which Salah is invalid. Forgetting Tashahhud does not invalidate the Salah.
Tashahhud has obligatory part and recommended parts which can be added on the obligatory part. The obligatory part in Tashahhud is: ASHHADU ANLA ELAAHA ILLALLAH WAHDAHU LA SHAREEKA LAH WA ASHHADU ANNA MUHAMMADAN ABDOHU WA RASOOLUH ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALA MUHAMMAD WA AALI MUHAMMAD.
أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأشهد أنّ محمدا عبده ورسوله اللهم صل على محمد وال محمد
The recommended parts are many e.g. BISMILLAH WA BILLAH WAL HAMDULILLAH WAL ASMAA'UL HUSNA LILLAH ASHHADU ANLA ELAAHA ILLAHLLAH WAHDAHU LA SHAREEKA LAH WA ASHHADU ANNA MUHAMMADAN 'ABDOHU WA RASOOLUH ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALA MUHAMMAD WA AALI MUHAMMAD WA TAQABBAL SHAFA'ATAHU WARFARIN DARAJATAH.
Yes it is allowed to say that as a Du'a. Every Du'a is permissible during Namaz.
Thank you for your question. In this situation (if you are not sure if you have prayed 2 or 3 rakats), if you are not someone who doubts too much, you would have to pray the fajr prayer gain.
May you always be successful.
Raising the finger while reciting the Tashahhaud in prayers is an act
which was never done by the Holy Prophet (SAWA) nor his holy ProgenyAhlul Bayt
(AS). This is done by some Muslims without authentic evidence and
there are different claims of ways of doing it among the Sunni groups. But all
the ways they do it are not authentic. There are Sunni scholars who do not do it and say that it is wrong to do it.
We must perform our Salaah as the Holy Prophet (SAWA) did it and as he ordered all Muslims saying : Pray Salaah as you saw me performing it.