Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text. It encompasses the religion, philosophy, and culture of the Jewish people.
Quran is the greatest miracle in the whole history of the world, which proves that it can never be made by any one but Allah with His unlimited powers and unlimited Knowledge.
Miracle is something that people can not do it e.g. Prophet Jesus was granted by Allah the ability to revive the dead and cure the cureless. His miracles were limited to his time and no one can witness any of Jesus miracles now. The miracles of Quran is everlasting and can be witnessed by any one, any where and any time. Quran has challenged its enemies who used to claim that it was made by Muhammad, to bring like Quran even if the gather all their allies and supporters from Jinns and humans. The enemies of Quran failed to stand to the challenge. Allah then challenged them to bring ten chapters like the chapters of Quran which are 114 chapters. They failed again. Then Allah challenged them to bring just one chapter like any of the 114 chapters of Quran. They failed again. This challenge has proven that Quran is never from any human source otherwise the enemies of Quran could have brought anything like it even one chapter like any of its 114 chapters. Millions of Arabs today are non Muslims and they know the Arabic language very well, yet none of them could make even one line like Quran. This is an evidence which is enough for any one who thinks in proper way.
Quran was revealed on the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) from Allah (SWT) and the allegation of obtaining it from Christians and Jewish communities has no scientific value at all, when you read Quran and compare it with the Jewish and Christian texts. Some similarities are there because the common origin of all the three texts is from Allah, but Torah and Bible were distorted while Quran remained remained constant and unchanged.
Temporary marriage can only be performed with a woman who is from Ahlul Kitab, i.e. she is either a Muslim, a Christian or a Jew.
If she is of any other faith, or just believes in a supreme being, but does not follow any of the 3 Abrahamic religions, then you cannot do mut'ah with her.
And Allah knows best.
This claim of some Jewish people that Uzair is son of Allah (SWT) , was common among Jewish communities in Yemen and Madina during the time of the Prophet Muhammad ( SAWA). There is Jewish sect called Asbahaniyyah which was also claiming the same. That is why, when the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) recited the Quranic verse on them, none of Jewish people denied it, despite all their enmity against Quran and Islam. If it was not among them, it would have been a golden chance for them to attack their enemy, the Prophet Muhammad, but they admitted it because it was among them at that time.
The Jewish people kept on changing their texts all along the history till now. They have now removed that claim from most of their books which are available to the public, but that does not mean that it was not their at the time of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA). Their admitting and not objecting or denying it is a very clear evidence that it was a fact.
The hypocrites were in many places including Madina. The hypocrites were from different tribes and places including Makkah and Madina. Hypocrites used to join hands with enemies of Islam including Jewish enemies and Mushriks of Quraish and others.
Most of the Jewish people are negative against Ismail and focus on Isaac being their great grand father. They deny the fact of sacrifice of Ibrahim by his son Ismail and claim that it was by his son Isaac.
There are few Jewish scholars who believe in the sacrifice of Ismail, but majority of Jewish available literature claim that it was Isaac not Ismail.
Dr John T. Noble from Harvard University wrote a book on Ismail through a research in the Old Testaments, published in 2016, in which he confirmed the status of Ismail against what most of Jewish people claim.
There is no doubt for any one with minimum knowledge about the history of the different Jewish and Christian scriptures that they are not the original scriptures revealed on Moses and Jesus, but were compiled long time after them.
The different Torahs and different Bibles existing today are living evidence that the original scriptures are mot in the hands of people.