From the sources, it seems that Harun (a.s.) was older than Musa (a.s.).
And Allah knows best.
Yes he is a prophet.
as salam alaikum
The Qur'an says: "Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him but forgive anything else" (4:48). However many people who were mushrikin became Muslims and Allah forgave all their past sins. One of the interpretations of the above-mentioned verse is that as long as you are associating something with Allah, you won't be able to go back to Him through tawbah while it is possible if you are committing other sins.
With prayers for your success.
Those who insist on Shirk and die with Shirk will not be forgiven, but those who repented and left Shirk will be forgiven.
Millions of people who committed Shirk,then became Muslims, were forgiven.
The Hadeeth says: Believing in Islam cuts off whatever was before it الاسلام يجُبّ٫ ما قبله
Thank you for your question. While the previous prophets (as) all followed the essence of Islam, which is submission to Allah, they had their own divine laws and were not called Muslims. A Muslim is a term given to those people who follow the divine law as transmitted by the final prophet Muhammad (saw). For this reason, the believers who followed the previous prophets are not outwardly called Muslims, even if the essence of their religion is submission (islam) and the reality of the practice of that essence makes them one who has submitted (muslim).
May you always be successful
The verse of the Qur'an discussing this (7:143) does not say that Moses saw Allah in the mountains. Rather, it says that if Allah were to manifest Himself to the mountain and it were to remain standing, then Moses would see Allah. However, that does not happen; Allah unveils some aspect of His greatness before the mountain, and the mountain shatters to pieces. (It is said in hadith that the way that Allah did this was by having one of the cherubim - i.e. one of the angels - shine part of its light onto the mountain.) Also, Moses passes out. Thus, Moses understands that no one and nothing can bear seeing Allah.
In the Shia Islamic belief, Allah is not confined within time or space. To confine Allah in a form or within a time frame, would limit him. This is no different to the Christian beliefs which state that God came down in the form of a person (Audhobillah). This belief is also similar to the Salafi beliefs where they compare Allah with his creation and give him physical movements and parts.
Therefore, we wouldn't say that Allah literally came down to earth rather any communication to Prophet Musa (peace be upon him) would of been through a type of creation from Allah. We can say that this incident was a manifestation of Allah's power and glory.
Furthermore, when Allah told Prophet Musa (peace be upon him): "You will never see Me" 7:143 this applies in both this world and the hereafter. This is unlike some other sects who believe that Allah will be seen on he day of judgment; for the Shia belief, Allah cannot be literally seen otherwise this would necessitate Allah being in an image and form.
May Allah grant you success
Al-Khidhr (AS) was one of the sincere servants of Allah (SWT) who was
been granted by Allah (SWT) His direct knowledge علم لدني (surah 18 verse 65).
Al-Khidhr (AS) was more knowledgeable than Prophet Moosa (AS) in few
matters and not in every matter. The Divine Wisdom is best known by
Allah (SWT). Some of the Ulama say that it might be a procedure to
train Prophet Moosa to be more patient and to teach the believer in
all the ages to be patient and to seek more knowledge and not to
object before having full knowledge about the situation. After all,
Allah (SWT) knows the best of the Divine Wisdom as we believe that He
is the Absolute Wise and Merciful who knows everything in the past,
present and the future, that is why we firmly believe in His divine wisdom best known to Him and His messenger and the his Infallible successors.
Not at all. Such narrations which contradict with Quran are fabricated and have no value whatsoever among the followers of Ahlul Bayt (AS).
Allah (SWT) Has ordered people to follow the prophets ( We have never sent any messenger but to be obeyed by Allah's order) 4:64. All the prophets are infallible and never committed any sinful act.
We find in Bukhari many narrations which go against Quranic facts and we have no way to leave Quran for the sake of Bukhari or any one else.
The verse of the Qur'an discussing this (7:143) does not say that Moses saw Allah in the mountains. Rather, it says that IF Allah were to manifest Himself to the mountain and it were to remain standing, then Moses would see Allah. However, that does not happen; Allah unveils some aspect of His greatness before the mountain, and the mountain shatters to pieces. (It is said in hadith that the way that Allah did this was by having one of the cherubim - i.e. one of the angels - shine part of its light onto the mountain.) Also, Moses passes out. Thus, Moses understands that no one and nothing can bear seeing Allah.
There is no doubt for any one with minimum knowledge about the history of the different Jewish and Christian scriptures that they are not the original scriptures revealed on Moses and Jesus, but were compiled long time after them.
The different Torahs and different Bibles existing today are living evidence that the original scriptures are mot in the hands of people.
The Ten Commandments are mentioned in Quran as well. Sura Al-Israa from verse 21 to verse 39.