Bismillah al-rahman ar-rahim, Al-Hamdulillah rabb al-'alameen wassalatu wassalamu 'ala ashrafil anbiyya' wal mursalin Abal Qasim al Mustafa Muhammad. [Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammadin wa aali Muhammad] wa 'ala ahli baytihil tayyibeen al tahireen alladheena adhaba Allahu'anhum al rijsa wa tahharahum tatheera. Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammad wa aali Muhammad.
My dear respected brothers and sisters, assalamu 'aleykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. To the annals of history, they were great scholars of the highest caliber, to those around them, they were beacons of hope and knowledge. To themselves, they were merely servants of God. And to us they are the twelve Imams of Ahlul Bayt, salawatullahi wa assalamuhu 'aleyhim.
For centuries, many great debates have emerged to determine the legitimacy of their legitimacy, as if this was a matter that required further explanation. Nonetheless, the age old question will continue to resurface. How do you prove Imamah? Many have attempted to prove Imamah textually by resorting to the ahadith, narrations, traditions. Others have attempted to prove Imamah scripturally by resorting to the Holy Qur'an and God's divine injunctions upon man and woman kind. Nonetheless, the age old question will continue to emerge, how do you prove Imamah?
Tonight, inshaAllah we will examine the concept of Imamah mathematically, because numbers cannot lie, numbers will not lie, and numbers have not lied. The first to address this concept in this manner was Al-Shaheed Al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr, qaddas Allahu sirrah in his book "Al-Mursil, Al-Rasul , Al-Risalah".
The question arises, how do you prove a theological concept using numbers? Because to prove anything using numbers, you need a quantitive amount of empirical evidence that is calculable. Which is why we will be calculating what is the probability that each Imam is the most knowledgeable in their relative era in an exponentially increasing Muslim populace. And we will do so by implementing the compound probability of independent events, which calls for multiplying the odds of each individual event to find the overall possibility of all events occurring.
For example, you flip a quarter. What is the probability it will land on heads? 1 over 2 or 50 percent. Now, what is the probability it will land on heads twice in a row? According to the compound probability of independent events, you take the odds and you multiply them. So 1 over 2 multiplied by 1 over 2, which equals 1 over 4. Or a 25 percent chance of landing on heads twice in a row.
We will take this same principle and apply it with the twelve Imams of Ahlul Bayt. By examining the Muslim population at the time and determining and concluding that the Imam was the most knowledgeable. What are the odds of that occurring? The Imam is one over how many Muslims were there? Anyone else could have been the most knowledgeable, but it was the Imam of Ahlul Bayt. It was Imam Ali, for example. How many Muslims were there in the time of Amir ul-mu'mineen? Let us say 1 million Muslims. The odds of Imam Ali being the most knowledgeable from amongst 1 million is 1 over 1 million.
But then we find this phenomenon occurring with Imam al-Hassan as well, when he assumes Imamah, he is also the most knowledgeable of his era. But you take the odds of that and you multiply them. So 1 over 1 million with Imam Ali, 'aleyh assalam, in mind, and multiplied by one over - during the time of your Imam al-Hassan, there were 4.8 million Muslims - 1 over 4.8 million, which is 1 over 4.8 trillion chance that these two can be the most knowledgeable one after the other. We will then calculate every individual Imam of Ahlul Bayt and then formulate the results as to what is the phenomenon like.
Can it truly be a matter of chance and coincidence that these men, the father being the most knowledgeable, then his son, then his brother, then his son, then his son, twelve times in a row. Is that one big coincidence or is there is some divine intervention behind that?
Beginning with Imam Amir ul-mu'mineen, Ali ibn Abi Talib, salawatullahi wa salamuhu 'alayh. He assumes the role of Imamah in the year 632 of the common era, of the current calendar. Mind you, the Holy Prophet of Islam began his mission in the year 611. Twenty three years later, he leaves this world with one million Muslims.
Now, as an observation, Imam Ali does not assume or actually does not become an Imam upon the death of the previous Imam. They do not just become Imams. They were Imams before they were even created. They assumed the leadership roles and the duties of an Imam. So Imam Ali assumes the role of Imamah upon the death of the previous Imam, who was the Holy Prophet. He was the Imam, the leader of the Islamic ummah.
And this is substantiated by the Holy Prophet of Islam, salla Allahu 'aleyhi wa aalihi wasalam, when he says "Al-Hassani wal Husayn Imamaan qaama aw qa'ida," that Imam Hassan and Husayn are Imams, whether they stand or sit. Standing, meaning whether they are active in their duties and role as an Imam or otherwise. But now they just assume the role of Imam upon the death of the former Imam.
Amir ul-mu'mineen, according to scholars and many historic narrations, it is suggested that there were 1 million Muslims upon the day the Holy Prophet died and the day Amir ul-mu'mineen assumes the role of Imamah. And those 999,999 muslims do not come near Amir ul-mu'mineen in the level of knowledge and wisdom that he has. And I would like to share with you a glimpse of the Imam's knowledge to substantiate that claim. Just a small glimpse of the sea of knowledge that is Ali ibn Abi Talib, alayh assalam.
One day Imam Ali was performing Qur'anic exegesis on the pulpit of Kufa. He was doing tafsir of the holy Qur'an, analyzing the words of God. As he was doing tafsir, he came across chapter 81 of the Holy Qur'an, verses 15 and 16. Chapter 81 is Suratul Takweer. When he was analyzing the verse, Bismillah al-rahman al-rahim. 'Fala uqsimu bil khunnas ; Al jawar al kunnas'(81:15-16). And I swear by the "khunnas, Al jawar al kunnas."
One man asked "Ya Amir ul-mu'mineen. What is 'khunnas', 'kunnas', what are these things that Allah is swearing upon?" Read any tafsir of the Holy Qur'an. Tafsir al amthal, Qummi, Fakhruddin al-Razi, even Tafsir Ibn Kathir, a Sunni Salafi tafsir. The response is Amir ul-mu'mineen said "Hiyal nujoom allaty la tura." They are the stars that are no longer visible.
Put this back in the Holy Qur'an. Allah says, I swear by the stars that are no longer visible. "Al jawar al kunnas", "Al jawar" comes from the word "Jariya", meaning rapid, fast paced, like maybe you have heard "Janattin tajree min tahtihal anhar", the rapid and quick and fast in its movement. "Al kunnas" - how to say a vacuum cleaner in Arabic, or just vacuum? "Muknasa", where it sweeps things away. "And I swear by the stars that are no longer visible, that are rapid in their movements and sweep things away."
This is a black hole. Amir ul-mu'mineen confirms this, that Allah is swearing upon this phenomenon, a black hole. And we discovered it in 1971 completely. And we just recently, a few months ago found or just saw the first image of a black hole, many of you may have noticed that, when they finally got the data, the first image of what a black hole looks like or what the surroundings of it. Because what is a black hole? It was a former star, hence "hiyyal nujoom" they are the stars that are no longer visible. It collapsed upon itself and it experienced so much pressure that it formed what is called a Schwarzschild radius. A radius where the pull is so strong, light particles cannot escape that force. Hence it is invisible, it is fast and rapid in its movement and sweeps things away. How does Ali ibn Abi Talib have that knowledge? Truly, the man was light years ahead of his time.
They once challenged Amir ul-mu'mineen, they said "Ya Ali, can you give us a sermon without using the letter ra'. That is like asking me, can you give me a lecture without using the letter r. The problem is the word lecture has the letter r in it so I am already in trouble. Imam Ali gives a whole entire khutba, a lecture without using the letter r. Read it. It is called an "Al khutub al khaliya", the lectures that lack.
They then ask Amir ul-mu'mineen, "Could you give us a lecture that does not have the letter alif in it. Alif is arguably the most common letter in the Arabic language. Give us a whole lecture without using that. Imam Ali on the spot gave them a whole sermon without using the letter alif, the equivalent of a. It is like saying to me, give a whole lecture, do not use A,E,I,O,U, or Y. How? It is impossible. Almost. Imam Ali does it on the spot.
They then said, "OK, we are going to up the challenge. Give us a whole sermon without using a letter that contains a dot. So no tha' or ta' or noon or jim or kha, so on, so forth. And he gives an entire sermon on the spot, read them and they are beautiful sermons as well, "Al khutub al khaliya" by Amir ul-mu'mineen, assalamu Allah 'alayh.
His knowledge was so great such that leaders of establishments were attesting that had it not been for Ali, they would attest, I would have been destroyed. For example, Umar ibn al Khattab - "Law la Ali la halaka Umar", "Had it not been for Ali, I would have been destroyed. Had it not been for Ali, I would have perished." Everyone acknowledges the man was on a whole different level.
But how impressed are we with Amir ul-mu'mineen? Observe Imam al-Hassan, alayhi assalam. When he assumes the role of Imamah in the year 661 of the common era, there were roughly, as we mentioned, 4.8 million Muslims at the time. None come near Al-Hassan Al-Mujtaba in knowledge and in wisdom.
Imam al-Hassan, alayhi assalam in his time, the Caliph who was in charge was Mu'awiya ibn abi Sufyan, unrightfully in charge of course. And so there was a convoy that had came from the Roman Empire that wanted to ask Mu'awiya being the khalifa of the Muslimeen and supposedly God's representative, ask him difficult questions that many people cannot provide the answers to. And so they said to him, "Oh leader of the Muslims, could you answer these questions Mu'awiya?" assuming he would know them being the leader of the Muslims and God's representative. "Of course, tell me."
They then asked Mu'awiya "What animals in history or which animals in history came without a mother and father? And which humans came without a mother and father? What is the distance between the heavens and the earth, and what is the distance between truth and falsehood? What is a neutral gender? In which ten things, one is harder than the other?"
Mu'awiya said "I haven't got a clue." They said "Who can answer these questions for us? This is a challenge." He said "No one can answer the questions that you are asking except Al-Hassan Al-Mujtaba. I know no one more knowledgeable than him. Make your way to him and he will provide your answers."
They go to Imam al-Hassan, these Romans, and they asked him. They said, "We hear that you are a man of wisdom and knowledge. We have some questions to ask you to prove that if that is the case." Imam al-Hassan says, "Go ahead."
They asked "Which animals came without a mother and father?" He said, "The crow in the story of Qabeel and Habeel, the snake in the story of Musa, the sheep in the story of Ibrahim and the she-camel of Salih."
"Which people came without any parents?" "Adam and Eve."
"What is the distance between the heavens and the earth?" He said, "The cry of an oppressed person in du'a."
They said, "What is the distance between truth and falsehood?" He says "Four fingers between the ear and the eye. What you hear with the ear, you must verify with the eye."
They said "What is a neutral gender?" To which Imam al-Hassan responded with "To identify a neutral gender, you must first wait for emission. If there is no seminal emission, then you wait for the formation of the mammary glands. If there are no mammary glands formed, then that is a neutral gender."
They said "Which ten things, one is harder than the former?" He said "Stone is hard, iron breaks stone, fire melts iron, water extinguishes fire, the clouds carry water, the wind moves the cloud, the angel controls the wind, the angel of death controls the angel that controls the wind, death controls, overpowers the angel of death and Allah overpowers death for He is the living that does not die."
As far as knowledge, none come near Imam al-Hassan, alayhi assalam, such that people couldn't find answers to these difficult questions, whether they were questions like this or Qur'anic questions or theological questions, Imam al-Hassan was a center, a beacon of wisdom and pure knowledge, and he is the inheritor of his father's knowledge as well. All those Muslims, the 4.8 million, do not come near Imam al-Hassan in his wisdom, alayhi assalam.
Well wait until we get to Aba Abdillah, salawatullahi wa salamuhu 'alayh. He assumes the role of Imamah upon the death of his brother Imam al-Hassan in the year 670 of the Common Era. Sayyid ul-Shuhada. At that time there were roughly 5.4 million Muslims. Imam al-Husayn, his stance and the decisions that he made distinguishes him from any Muslim and person at that time, such that he exhibits moments where his knowledge should not be there. What do I mean by this? How on earth can you know this information?
For example, the Imam, before he sets off to go to Kufa, he makes an announcement "And I see myself being slaughtered." He then continues by bringing his specific amount, he brings a specific amount of his siblings. He brings Al Sayyada Zaynab, but he has other sisters, he could have brought them. But he knows he needs her. Because the destination is not Kufa, it is indeed Karbala, and she is the only qualified eligible one to take the reigns and control what happens after Karbala and be in charge of that journey. He has other brothers besides Abal Fadhl al-Abbas, but he takes him and a few others in particular because he knows, I need them, because I am not headed to Kufa, I am headed to Karbala and I see myself being killed.
On the ninth of the month of Muharram, Sayyid ul-Shuhada is gathered with his companions and he says to them, "You guys need to leave, they are after me, I am to be killed." How do you know you are going to be killed? He has so much confidence. "They are not here to kill you, they are here to kill me, so leave if you like." And of course, we all know the ansar did not abandon Aba Abdillah, and inshaAllah, we will never abandon Aba Abdillah, bi ithnilaah ta'ala. He was that confident that they were going to kill him and he was going to die. And I say that because the other side, the opposition was very hesitant. Umar ibn Sa'd did not want to fight Imam Husayn. The last thing on his mind was to kill Aba Abdillah. He was constantly crying in remorse when Aba Abdillah was about to be killed, that this was not something I wanted to happen, but due to the orders of Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad and Yazid ibn Mu'awiya, I had to follow through.
So there could have been a chance, there was indeed a chance, a big chance that the Imam would have survived, not died that day. But he was that confident, such that he left an amazing impact upon history and ultimately man and woman kind, and that distinguishes Aba Abdillah. And this is just the stance on the events of Muharram. Look at the other years during Sayyid ul-Shuhada's life where he exhibits moments of pure knowledge.
And it is not just knowledge, it is the fact history has not recorded a single mistake, a sin, anything like that, just pure correct answers and moments where we truly can take these individuals as role models in our lives. This was the case of Aba Abdillah. None came near him in his wisdom, insight and foresight.
Until Imam Zain ul-Abideen, alayhi assalam came into the scene in the year 680 of the Common Era. Now, by that time, there were approximately 6.1 million Muslims. Imam Zain ul-Abideen, if there was anybody who had experienced hardship, truly, it was him. Because he saw Karbala and after Karbala, yet he managed to maintain himself. People who experience near-death experiences usually succumb and just give up. They are no longer going to be active in the public sphere.
Yet he was so active afterwards that he produced one of the most amazing works. There is no Shi'i household today except that it has these three books: al Qur'an al Kareem, Mafatih ul jinan, and Al Sahifa Al-Sajjadiya of Imam Zain ul-Abideen. A compilation of du'as, supplications, a way to speak to Allah Subhanah wa Ta'ala. Ulama' say, if you want to know what Islam is, read Du'a Makarimul Akhlaq. That summarizes Islam for you. You want to know God, Makarimul Akhlaq. The Holy Prophet and his mission, Makarimul Akhlaq. You want to know the vision and philosophy of a Muslim today, Makarimul Akhlaq of Imam Zainul Abideen, salawatullahi wa assalamuhu 'alayh.
There were, due to the knowledge the Imam would exhibit, there were Ulama' from other schools of thought who would attest. For example, al Imam al Zuhri, the famous Sunni 'alim would say "Ma ra'aytu ahadan kan afqah min Ali ibn al Husayn, I saw nobody more knowledgeable than Imam Zain ul-Abideen". Nobody is more knowledgeable than him. And this is coming from the other schools of thought. Come to our school of thought and see the plethora of narrations that indicate the knowledge and wisdom of these individuals above any human being at that time. Al Imam Zain ul-Abideen, salawatullahi wa salamuhu 'alayh, none came near him in knowledge.
Until Imam al-Baqir alayhi assalam, came into the scene. Al-Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, salawatullahi wa assalamuhu 'alayh, assumed the role of Imamah in the year 713 of the Common Era. Al-Imam al-Baqir, alayhi assalam, assumes that role while there were roughly 10 million Muslims. 10 million Muslims, only one man had the title, "Baqir al 'uloom", the splitter and dissector and spreader of knowledge and wisdom. His title is an indication of his grandeur, that is his wisdom and knowledge.
Al-Imam al-Baqir, alayhi assalam,was going to the holy Ka'ba and paying pilgrimage. He was visiting the Ka'ba, performing Hajj. The Caliph at the time by the name of Hisham ibn Abdil Malik, noticed everybody had extreme love for the Imam. They loved him and gave him more attention than the Caliph. Now the Caliph is supposed to be the one representing and leading Islam. Of course, the Imams, they are the real khulafa' of Allah, but people usurped their rights. Amongst them, Hisham ibn Abdil Malik. He says to his servant by the name of Nafi'. Nafi', mawla Umar ibn al Khattab. He was the former slave or servant of Umar ibn al Khattab. And he was also a khariji who fought against Imam Ali on the day of Nahrawan.
He says to him "How do I deal with this man?" Nafi' responded with, "I will go and ask him difficult questions and none of them he will be able to answer." He approaches Al-Imam al-Baqir, alayhi assalam,and he says to him "I have questions. Can you answer them for me or no? If you can, then you are a knowledgeable man. Are you a man of knowledge?" To which Imam al-Baqir replies a very beautiful reply, "I am not from the ignorant." Many of us -knowledgeable, scholar, intellectual... "I am not from the ignorant," will suffice and is sufficient.
Nafi' says, "OK, what is the difference in years between Jesus and Muhammad?" Imam al-Baqir replied, "In your opinion, six hundred years, in my opinion, five hundred years." Nafi' was confused, "How did you know my opinion in this matter? But that is correct, I believe it is six hundred years and you believe five hundred years.
OK, very well. In chapter 43, verse 45 of the Holy Qur'an, Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, says to Rasul Allah 'Until the prophets who came before you, did you ask your people to worship none but Allah?' Question. How could Allah tell Rasul Allah to ask the prophets who came before him? Because they have passed away. How can you ask them all that question?" To which Imam al-Baqir replies beautifully "Easy, the Prophet of Islam in the mi'raj journey led congregational prayer to all the prophets of Allah. And when he finished leading the prayer, he turned around and asked them, 'Did you tell your people to worship none but Allah, Subhanahu wa ta'ala?"
Nafi' said, "Good. That is impressive. You are good. Where is God? Allah, where is He?" To which Al-Imam al-Baqir replied, "Show me where He is not, I will show you where He is."
Wow. "When did God come about?" To which Al-Imam al-Baqir replies, "Show me when He was not, I will show you when He was."
Nafi' was impressed. Now Imam al-Baqir turns the tables, alyahi assalam. He says, "Now, let me ask you a question." Guy is in trouble now. He says, "Oh Nafi', I am going to ask you a question. And this question only has one of two answers. If you answer either one of them, you are a kaafir. The first question is, do you agree with the Khawarij who fought against Amir ul-mu'mineen in the event of Nahrawan? If you do, then you are a kaafir because fighting against the Imam of your time is kufr. But if you do not, then you are a liar because you were one of them who fought against the Imam Ali on that day." Nafi' went back to Hisham saying "I am never debating this guy ever again in my life."
Hisham ibn Abdelmalek was confused. "What do I do with this man? Find me the smartest scholar. Whatever he is, wherever he is from, just debate him and destroy him. That is all we need to do and that is all we need to have happen to remove the love people have in their hearts for Imam al-Baqir.
They found a man. He approached Imam al-Baqir, the scholar sent by Hisham ibn Abdelmalek. He says to him, "I have to ask you a few questions." He says, "Go ahead." To which the man says, "But wait, my questions are from both Bible and Qur'an." He says "Go ahead."
The man asks, "Which fast in history did Allah allow for drinking and eating?" Imam al-Baqir replied "The fast of Lady Maryam, she was only told to stay quiet."
He says, "Which moment in history was a quarter of humanity wiped out?" Imam al-Baqir said "When Habeel was killed by his brother Qabeel, there were four people: Adam, Eve, Habeel, Qabeel. Habeel dies by Qabeel. There are three left. A quarter of humanity was killed."
And then this man asks Imam al-Baqir ,alayhi assalam, "What decreases and never increases?" He said "The sea." He says "Right, what increases and never decreases?" He said "Your age."
And then he asked him one last question. He said, "This is a hard one, if you can get it, I have given up." He says "Go ahead." Imam was asked "Which twins, brothers were born on the same day, died on the same day, but one was 150 years old and the other was 50 years old?" To which Imam al-Baqir replies, "Easy. Azeez and his brother Uzair. You know Uzair from the Holy Qur'an. Uzair asked Allah, how do you revive the dead? Upon which Allah made him die, they were both 30 years old, Uzair stayed dead for 100 years. Allah revived him. They lived for another 20 years. The older brother was 150 and Uzair was 50 years old."
That man became a Shi'i and follower of the Ahlul Bayt due to Al-Imam al-Baqir 'alyahi assalam's answers and his eloquence. None came nearly Imam al-Baqir, salawatullah 'alayh, in knowledge and wisdom. Such that they were titling him Baqir-ul-'uloom because "kan yabqar al 'ilm baqra", he used to split, open, disseminate and spread knowledge far and wide. How impressed are we by Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, 'alyahi assalam. Let us look upon Al-Imam Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq and wait for the surprises that come there.
Because Imam al-Sadiq, 'alayhi asalam, assumes the role of Imamah in the 732nd year of the common era. By that time there were roughly 12 million Muslims around, and of course none came near Imam Ja'far Al-Sadiq, alayhi assalam. Imam al-Sadiq lived the longest from the Imams, the twelve Imams of Ahlul Bayt, due to the flexibility that he had from the establishments that were dealing with problems from within. There was a transition between one establishment to the next, Bani Ummayah was falling, Banu Abbas was rising. They were concerned between themselves and power. That gave the Imam a bit room, a bit more room to breathe and teach. And so a lot of our material and jurisprudence and aqa'id and fiqh and so on and so forth comes from him. That is why we are called the Ja'fari school of thought, and we say that with our heads held high.
I would like to share with you a glimpse of Imam al-Sadiq's knowledge, but I need your attention because this is something that is going to be a very mind boggling moment. Al-Imam al-Sadiq, alayhi assalam, was approached by his companion, by the name of Hisham al Khaffaf. This narration is found in Al-Kafi, so it is not some wrong hadith where no one knows where it came from, it is from Al-Kafi.
Hisham Al-Khaffaf is a famous scientist and astronomer. He says - " 'An Hisham Al Khaffaf qaal, qaal li Abu Abdillah, alayhi assalam", Imam al-Sadiq asked me, "Kayfa basarruka bil nujoom, how is your understanding in astronomy?" To which Hisham al Khaffaf says "Qaal qulto ma fa khalaftu bil Iraqi absarra bil nujoomi mini, I have not left anyone in Iraq except that I am the most knowledgeable in astronomy. No one in Iraq is more knowledgeable than me."
And he says Iraq, he means the entire world, because at that time it was the Islamic golden age. Scholars would come and learn and teach in Baghdad Ancient Greek and they would study religion and they would study philosophy and theology and cosmology and astronomy and so forth. It was the hub of learning and science. Nowhere else in the world experienced a moment like that in that time. So he says Iraq, he means the entire world. "No one in all the world, in Iraq, wherever it may be, is more knowledgeable than me in astronomy."
To which Imam al-Sadiq responds "Fa qal, kayfa dawaraan al faliki 'indakum, All right, and how does the solar system work and turn and function, in your opinion?" To which Hisham al-Khaffaf says "Qal fa akhadhtu qalinsuwati 'an ra'si fa adartuha, and I took my cap on my head" - the 'ulama wear a cap underneath their 'amamah, underneath their turban. He is like, "I took it, that cap and I turned it from around my head, my head representing the earth and the cap would represent the solar system. The solar system revolves around the Earth." This was the common understanding back then, that the Earth was the center of the universe and everything would revolve around it. He says "That is how the solar system works." He demonstrated.
Imam al-Sadiq replied a very wonderful reply and truly transcending, time-transcending reply. He says "In kan al amru 'ala ma taqool fa mabaalu banaati na'shin wal jadi wal farqadayn la yarawna yaduroon yawman min al dahril fil qiblah, If the case was as you described, then what about the North Star, Polaris? We have never seen it move in any direction once in our lives. Never, ever have we seen that star move."
He says the North Star does not move. If the whole solar system moves around the Earth, revolved around the Earth, as Hisham al-Khaffaf thought, which by the way, was the common understanding, you can't blame them, that is how we thought it worked. If that is the case, how come that star doesn't move? Because the Northern Star is on the exact top of the northern sky, on the axis of the earth. And so when you look into the sky at night, especially if you put it on fast play, if you record it and you watch it quickly, you will notice the solar system, the stars, they turn like that, except one stays situated, because it is directly above us. So if the whole solar system was turning around the Earth, it would move also. But it doesn't, indicating that the Earth moves within the solar system, not the solar system revolving around the Earth.
This was a very unprecedented, unorthodox, unusual answer, which today we have confirmed. To which Hisham al-Khaffaf has replied "Qala qultu hadha wallah shay'un la a'rifuhu wa la sami'tu ahadan min ahlil hisaabi yadhkuruhu. By Allah, this is something I have never heard of, and nor have I seen any knowledgeable man propose this before."
Imam al-Sadiq continuouses, he says "OK, and how does the moon or how much does the moon reflect from the sun's light?" He says, "I do not know that either." This is an interesting point as well, because the common understanding was that the moon illuminated its own light. But Imam al-Sadiq says, "How much does the moon reflect on the sun's light?" How much? Today, it is 3 to 11 percent. So not all of it, just some of it, he makes an indication. Number two, it reflects not its own light, it just reflects the sun's light, number two. And number three, the universe does not revolve around the earth. The earth moves within the universe that also moves around.
Did you know that there was a very famous polymath, scientist, astronomer by the name of Nasir ul-Deen al-Tusi. Nasir ul-Deen al-Tusi, he makes this claim as well, 500 years later, by the way. He makes this claim that the earth is not the center of the universe. He says he was inspired by Imam Al-Sadiq. He was a Shi'i individual. And he took this narration and he was inspired by it and he made that claim.
Nasir ul-Deen al-Tusi was inspired by, inspired actually, Nicholas Copernicus. Nicholas Copernicus mentions that he studied the work of Nasir ul-Deen al-Tusi and Western academia suggests that he was the first to portray this idea that the Earth was not the center and the universe does not revolve around it, whereas it revolves within the universe that also moves and turns as well around the sun, the galaxies, the solar system, "Wa kullin fi falakin yasbahun" (36:40) as the Qur'an says, and they are all in an orbit swimming.
He inspired Nicholas Copernicus, the famous astronomer, Galileo Galilei, who was persecuted for these beliefs by the church because it was an article of faith and he was contradicting that when he said this, when he announced this, so they put him under house arrest and they burned his books, and he got the achievement for this discovery. But Imam al-Sadiq, alayhi assalam, said it way before anyone, and he was arguably the first to make this type of announcement.
Never underestimate your Imams of Ahlul Bayt, brothers and sisters. Look at what they were able to produce for man and woman kind. Such that scholars from other schools of thought came and would attest. For example, Malik ibn Anas, the Imam of the Maliki school of thought, he would say "Ma ra'at 'aynun wa la sami'at udhunun wa la khatara 'ala qalbi basharin afdhal min Ja'far ibn Muhammadin al-Sadiq, fadhlan, wa 'ilman, wa 'ibadatan, wa wara'an". No eye has seen, nor ears have heard, no heart has accepted a person more knowledgeable than Ja'far son of Muhammad al-Sadiq in knowledge, in wisdom, in worship, in devotion." And just in pure sheer awesomeness, no one comes near his knowledge.
Another Imam from our dear brothers and sisters from Ahlul Sunnah school of thought Abu Hanifa al-Nu'mani when he says "Lawlal sanatan la halakal Nu'man. Had it not been for the two years I studied under Ja'far al-Sadiq, I would have been perished. Who am I had it not been for the two years under Ja'far al-Sadiq." Imam Ja'far Al-Sadiq, salawatullahi wa salamuhu 'aleyh.
How impressed are we by Imam Al-Sadiq? Very impressed, I can imagine. Wait until you see Imam Musa al-Kadhim, salamullahi 'alayh. Imam al-Kadhim, alayhi assalam, assumed Imamah in the year 765 of the common era. Now, by that time, 15 million Muslims were around. None, I tell you, come near Imam Musa al-Kadhim, alayhi assalam, in his knowledge.
Many of us understand Imam al-Kadhim as being just this man who was in jail for most of his life. No, he was not in jail for most of his life, a good portion of his life, but not most. And he left a very strong, rich, fiqhi legacy for all of us to benefit from today. He left us - many people do not know that - his brother, by the name of Ali Ibn Ja'far would ask him questions. Now due to the severe taqiyyah conditions at the time, he would not refer to him as the Imam, he would say the 'alim or Abal Hassan. He collected all of these questions and answers and compiled them into a book called "Musnad Ali bin Ja'far" or "Masa'il Ali Ibn Jafar, the Questions of Ali, son of Imam Ja'far Al-Sadiq, to my dear brother Imam Musa al-Kadhim, alayhi assalam". A rich fiqhi legacy that is used as a gift for us. It is a gift truly, Imam al-Kadhim left us a wonderful gift of jurisprudential rulings as to how we can maneuver in our day to day lives. Yet many people just do not understand.
When I visit, al-hamdulillah whenever I get the honor to visit the Imams of Ahlul Bayt, of course, it is my obligation to visit my family there too in Iraq. Whenever I sit with them, some of them like to discuss the past and the conditions that they had to deal with under the horrible regime at the time, Saddam's establishment. And so they were describing the days they were put in jail, I remember they would mention, and that the conditions were so bad in the prison, horrible and tormenting, that there were people in the same cell who were taking away their lives, because of how much they just couldn't handle this anymore, they would just kill themselves.
They pushed through. And so when their du'a was answered and they were released from prison, they say, whenever we are asked, what helped you push through and just stay and make it and manage when people in your own cell were killing themselves, why do not you just give up and succumb? They would say, we would remember the du'a of Imam Musa al-Kadhim, alayhi assalam. We thought to ourselves, if he went through it, it is worth it. They, we are nothing to him. It is worth it. He went through something similar too.
The du'a is by Imam Musa al-Kadhim alayhi assalam. "'Allahuma innaka ta'lam anani kuntu as'aluka an tufarrighani li 'ibadatik, Allahuma wa qad fa'alta dhalika fa lakal hamd'. Oh Allah You always knew" - look at how he responds to the Lord. Some of us, we complain, why me, why would you? Look at how Imam al-Kadhim responds back to a horrible situation he was inflicted with. "Oh Allah, You always knew I wanted a moment of privacy to worship You. Oh Allah You have given me just so that all praises due to You."
What a beautiful way. What a beautiful lesson. It helped people go through difficult situations that were similar. If you are dealing with some time in your life that is difficult and requires great patience, it is worth it, Imam al-Kadhim dealt with it too. And look at the plethora of lessons and wisdom it was able to provide for us, all of us today.
Imam al-Sadiq, alayhi assalam, describes Imam al-Kadhim. He says, "My son, inna ibnee hadha low sa'altahu 'an ma bayna daf'ataya al mus-haf la ajabaka feehi bi 'ilmin". "Indeed my son" - notice Imam Musa al-Kadhim assumed Imamah when he was 20 years old. So Imam al-Sadiq is saying this when Imam al-Kadhim is in his teens, look at what he says. "My son, if you were to ask him any question regarding what is between the two covers, the two covers of the Holy Qur'an, he is able to answer you with pure knowledge."
Between the two covers of the Holy Qur'an, that is everything in the Qur'an: the tafsir, the ta'weel, the outer meaning, the deeper and powerful layers of the Qur'an, the inner meanings, he will be able to answer you, this teenager. Where does he get that knowledge from?
He then continues, Imam al-Sadiq, alayhi assalam, in describing Imam al-Kadhim. "Wa qal aydhan", and he also said, "wa 'indahu 'ilmul hikma - and he has knowledge of deep wisdom, wal fahm - and understanding and logic, wal sakhaa' - generosity, wal ma'rifa bima yahtaju ilayhil nas fi makhtalafu min amir deenihim - and any question that you need that regarding a case concerning your religion, he will be able to answer you." Anything regarding Islam, he will be able to answer you. And you all know Islam is not just a religion like a color, this one is green, this one is blue, this one is red, no, Islam is a way of life. So anything concerning your way of life, he will be able to answer you. That is like complete knowledge. It is actually complete knowledge of everything there is to know. Because anything in life is connected to religion, anything and everything. Whatever you ask, he will be able to answer.
You have Al Shaikh al-Mufid describing Imam Musa al-Kadhim. "Wa qad rawa al nas - and people have all attested at his time, 'an Abil Hassan Musa, alayhi assalam, wa kanna afqah ahal zamanih - and he was the most knowledgeable in his time period." No one came near Imam Musa al-Kadhim, salamullahi 'alayh.
Until Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha, alayhi assalam, makes it into the scene. He assumes Imamah in the year 799 of the common era. Now, by that time there were roughly 18 million Muslims. As we know, Imam al-Ridha was taken forcefully to be made as the succeeding caliph, the successor of the khalifa at the time, Al Ma'mun Al-Abassi. And he was taken and again, this problem emerged where people loved the Imam more than the khalifa, the leader. So he tries to embarrass him by gathering different scholars of the highest caliber of different religions, the Hindu priest, the Jewish rabbi, the Christian monk, atheists, Zoroastrians, whatever it may be, people who did not even speak Arabic, by the way, he would answer them. How do you know their language? Subhana Allah.
One of these events I would like to share with you too. Imam al-Ridha, alayhi assalam, is approached by the Christian monk. And the Christian asks Imam al-Ridha, "Do you believe in Jesus?" He says, "Of course I believe in Jesus." "What is Jesus or who is Jesus to you?" Imam al-Ridha says "He is the prophet of God." The Christian monk asks him, "And you believe in Muhammad?" And he says, "Yes, I do." He says, "Which of the two prophets is greater, in your opinion". To which Imam al-Ridha says "Muhammad is much greater than Jesus because Muhammad prayed and fasted more than Jesus." And then the Christian monk said, "How dare you say anyone prayed and fasted and worshipped more than our Lord Jesus?" To which Imam al-Ridha replies, "If he is your Lord, could you please tell me who he was praying and worshipping, who he was praying to?" The Christian monk said "I cannot continue with this."
The Jewish rabbi came and now Imam al-Ridha is asking him questions. He asks him from the Torah, the Old Testament. And in my personal research, I wanted to find the verses that Imam al-Ridha quotes and I found them. They are Deuteronomy 33:2. Imam al-Ridha is quoting them, this verse of the Torah, and he says, "Oh, Jewish Rabbi, I am going to ask you a question. If you can answer, then please do so." Jewish rabbi says "I am ready. Go ahead." One observation. How does he know the Torah? Look at how much he knows about the Torah too.
He says, "God in chapter 33, verse 2 of Deuteronomy says, in the Arabic Hadith, 'wa tajala rabbukka 'ala jabali sineen,' and your Lord showed His manifestation, came down upon Mount Sinai, question, who is this person Allah came down upon on Mount Sinai?". The Jewish rabbi says "It is none other than Moses." Imam al-Ridha says "Ahsant, I agree, it is Moses, alayhi assalam, Allah came down, showed His manifestation, showed His manifestation at that time. Well continue the verse, Jewish monk." He says "Continuation is what?"
He says "Allah continues 'wa tajala rabbuka 'ala jabali sa'eer', 'and your Lord showed His manifestation upon Mount Seir. Who is this person God showed His manifestation, came down upon, on Mount Seir." Jewish rabbi says "I do not know", he says "It is Jesus, son of Mary." No one who - this Mount Seir is a mountain in the Palestine region - no one Allah showed His manifestation to on Mount Seir except Jesus son of Mary. Historic texts confirms this.
"But finish the last verse. That is the one I want you to focus on. It says 'wa tajala rabbuka 'ala jabali faraan', 'and your Lord showed His manifestation upon Mount Paran. Mount Paran. Who is this person God showed His manifestation upon?" To which the Jewish rabbi says, "I do not know."
Imam al-Ridha says "There was no person" - by the way, Mount Paran is a chain link of mountains that goes down to the Arabian Peninsula. Imam al-Ridha replies "There is no person in history that stood on Mount Paran that Allah came down for and showed His manifestation to except none other than my grandfather, Rasul Allah Muhammad, salla Allahu 'aleyhi wa aalihi wasalam. Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammad wa aali Muhammad. The Jewish rabbi gave up at that time.
Imam al-Ridha, alayhi assalam - Abal Salt al-Harawi, the famous scholar and poet would say, qal "Ma ra'aytu a'Iam min Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha 'aleyhi asalam wa la ra'ahu 'alimun ila shahida lahu bi mithli shahadati", I saw no scholar more knowledgeable than Ali al-Ridha, alayhi assalam, and no scholar sees him, except they attest to the same testimony that I give, except that they agree with what I am saying, that they see him, you are the most knowledgeable in this time period and in this era.
Imam al-Ridha has compiled a wonderful work for us that does not contradict modern day science and medicine. It is called the "Golden Medical Dissertation of Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha", which food you should eat to avoid certain diseases, if you are dealing with anorexia, eat this, avoid that, bulimia, obesity, whatever it is, he gives you solutions and remedies; if you are having a headache, what you should eat; which foods to eat during which seasons, and what seasons produce which reactions, and what you should take regarding ointments and aroma therapy and so on and so forth. All of it is currently authentic, realistically and authentic from Imam al-Ridha, alayhi assalam. None came near his knowledge and his wisdom.
Until we reach Al-Imam Muhammad Al-Jawad, salawatullahi wa assalamuhu 'alayh, In the year 818 of the common era, he assumes the role of Imamah. At that time there were roughly 20 million Muslims. Al-Imam al-Jawad, alayhi assalam, as we know, he assumes Imamah at seven years of age, he was seven years old. Or actually he assumes Imamah some say, when he was five. Two years later, Al-Ma'mun makes his way, and in this incident, he was seven years old, and I will continue.
Al-Ma'mun makes his way, the same caliph who just killed Imam al-Ridha, through the streets of Medina, he was going to the pilgrimage. There were kids and children playing on that road. They saw the caliph and king making his way with all his horses and men. They all ran due to fear and out of fear, except one boy. As they make their way, they ask this young boy, "Why do not you run with your friends?" To which this young boy says "Two things: one, the road is big enough for you and I to be on it in the same time and for you to go around me. And secondly, I wouldn't run away because I have not done anything wrong to you for me to fear you."
That is a very big, bold thing to say and a very audacious thing to do to the caliph, especially one who is as ruthless, as tough as al-Ma'mun. He says, "You think you are smart young boy?". And the same reply, "I am not from the ignorant." "What's in my hand?" And he does that. To which Imam Muhammad Al-Jawad, alayhi assalam replies, "Allah creates hawks that fly in the sky. These hawks come down to the river banks. There are fishes that jump up and down from the river. The hawk snatches the fish. It goes back to the king. The king takes the fish. He puts the fish in his hand and in his hand he extends it to the son of Rasul Allah and asks him 'what's in my hand?'"
Al-Ma'mun was shocked at that reply. He asked him, "Who are you?" Imam al-Jawad says, "I am Muhammad, son of Ali." Son of Ali, son of who? "Son of Ali, son of Musa, son of Ja'far, son of Muhammad, son of Ali, son of Husayn, brother of Hassan, son of Ali, husband of Lady Fatima, daughter of Rasul Allah Muhammad, salla Allahu 'aleyh wa alih wasalam.
Al-Ma'mun said "You have to marry my daughter." Talk about a very interesting marriage proposal. "You have to marry my daughter. Come with me." So he was forcefully taken as well. From Medina, he made his way to Baghdad. And while he was there, he was constantly praising Imam al-Jawad, "he is the most knowledgeable I have ever seen, no one is like him", and the people were shocked. "How, he is just a kid." And so they all decided, let us prove this wrong, he is just a kid, to gather all together, narrations say 900 scholars, and you know this was the Islamic golden age, so 900 top scholars came of all fields and disciplines, would come, 900 against one young boy, and they would debate him.
One man by the name of one 'alim, scholar by the name of Yahya ibn Akthem approaches Imam al-Jawad and he says "Look, Al-Ma'mun, come on, he is just a kid. I am going to ask him something. He is not going to reply. He is going to cry. What is this?" Al-Ma'mun says "Do not underestimate him. He is not just a kid." And then he says "Fine, young man, what is the kaffara, the penalty of a person who wears ihram in the state of ihram and kills an animal?"
Imam al-Jawad says "Your question is not clear." And then he says "See, he does not even know". "No wait. Was the man a free man or a slave? Was it in Mecca or outside of Mecca? Was it in the night or was it in the day? Was it a wild animal or not a wild animal? Was it the first time or was it another time? If it was an animal, was it from those of the sky or those of the sea? Was it in Umrah or was it in Hajj? Was it this or was it that?" 16 different points from one fiqhi question. And they were shocked.
He, Yahya ibn Aktham says "That is something I did not expect. Can you tell me the answers to all of that?" And Imam al-Jawad begins to explain, If it is in the night, this is the kaffara. If it is on the day, this is the kaffara, if it is the first time, if he is from the learned, if he is from the non learned, if he is a slave, if it is this, if that, so on and so forth. He gives them all these remedies.
And then Imam al-Jawad says, "Now let me ask you a question." They are afraid. They all say, "Come on, Yahya, you underestimated him, take him on now".
Imam al-Jawad, alayhi assalam, says "A person wakes up in the morning, he looks at something it is haram for him. Later in the day, it becomes halal for him. In the afternoon, it becomes haram for him. In the evening, it becomes halal for him. Close the night time, it becomes haram for him. And by the end of the day it becomes halal for him. What is that thing that he looked at?" Yahya says "If I told you I knew I would be lying. Tell me, what is it?"
Imam al-Jawad replies "A person wakes up in the morning and he looks at another person's slave girl." These were the conditions of the time back then. "She was haram for him. He then purchases her. She became halal for him. He then frees her, she became haram for him. He then marries her, she became halal for him. He then divorces her, she became haram for him. But right before the divorce was finalized, he revoked it, and she became halal for him."
As far as knowledge, none came Imam Muhammad al-Jawad, alayhi assalam. And scholars of the other side also attest to this. It is not just some rogue claim we are making. A man by the name of Al Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, the grandson of Ibn Qayyim al Jawziya, so Al Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, the grandson. Ibn Qayyim al Jawziya, famously being the student of the inaugurator of the Salafi School of Thought Ibn Taymiyya. He attests that Al-Imam Muhammad al-Jawad, alayhi assalam "Wa kaan 'ala minhaj abihi fil 'ilmi wal tuqa wal zuhd wal jood. He was on the path of his father in knowledge" - and how knowledgeable were his fathers Imam al-Ridha and Kadhim and all of them - "he was on the path of his father in knowledge, in obedience, in loyalty and in generosity." Imam Muhammad al-Jawad, salamullahi 'alayh.
And you find that none came near to his wisdom until we reach al Imam Ali al-Hadi, salawatullah wa salamahu 'alayh. We have done Imam al-Hadi a big injustice and disservice. Imam al-Hadi assumes the role of Imamah in the year 835 of the common era. And by that time there were 22 million Muslims. Brothers and sisters, really read upon the lives of the Ahlul Bayt, especially these Imams, Imam al-Hadi in particular, because many people I ask, how much do you know about Imam al-Hadi? "I do not know anything, I just know that he was simply an Imam."
Is that sufficient? Because Imam al-Hadi, had it not been for him, we would be living like torment, complete torment, because he provides us fiqhi solutions to everyday problems. He is the one. How many of you have read these delicate, meticulous rulings on wearing leather that is halal or not halal? That all comes from Imam al-Hadi, alayhi assalam. He tells you how to live your life, how to live your day to day and go through your errands and not commit a sin and perform that which is halal and avoid that which is haram. He provides us these meticulous fiqhi rulings. What to do so sujud on, for example, can you do sujud on glass? How many of us know that answer? Is it organic, is it not, is it wearables, etc. but is it natural? He provides us all of these solutions for these very interesting, meticulous questions. The reason why you live comfortable today is because of the contributions of Imam al-Hadi, alayhi assalam.
Imam al-Hadi left us also a sea of fiqh, as mentioned, as well as du'a. Be careful when you read the ad'iyat and the supplications of Imam Ali al-Hadi. He has left us over forty eight du'as. Very bone chilling du'as. Amongst them, Ziyarat Al Jami'al Kubra of Imam Ali al-Hadi.
Be careful when you read that du'a. You would think that these Imams are not real humans, but God, literally God, because at the time and I say that with confidence, why? Because three Imams of Ahlul Bayt were worshipped. Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, Imam al-Sadiq was worshipped. Of course, the Imams would condemn that, of course. And Imam Ali al-Hadi. He was worshipped because of the words and the articulation, wisdom and knowledge, insight and foresight that they would exhibit. Imam al-Hadi would condemn that, I am not to be worshipped, and there is only Allah, La ilaaha illa Huw, is to be worshipped? Not me.
But some people couldn't help themselves. This man is just not normal. Let's worship him. And the Imam would constantly try his hardest to prevent that from happening. But it just attests to the wisdom that he would show and the sea that he was of knowledge and wisdom.
Imam al-Hadi, alayhi assalam, was summoned to the court of Al-Mutawakkil Al-Abassi, the evil caliph at the time. How many evil Caliphs were there, la ilaha illa Allah. And Al-Mutawakkil brings him and he was drunk, he was throwing a party and he says to Imam al-Hadi, "I want you to sing." Imam says, "I do not sing, I will not sing." He says, "I want you to drink with me." He says "Ma khaalata lahmi wa dammi. My blood has never and will never mix with that intoxication." He says, "Then I want you to recite poetry." Imam al-Hadi says "I will not recite."
Al-Mutawakkil says - or he (Imam) says, "I am not from the poets." Al-Mutawakkil says "La bud, whether you like it or not." Now that is a threat. Why does Imam al-Hadi - a quick observation - say, "I am not from amongst the poets or I am not of the poets?". He can give poetry. In fact, they are the most poetic. Read Imam Ali's poetry, read Ahlul Bayt's, Imam al Husayn's, very poetic. But what does Imam al-Hadi say? "I am not from the poets." He is trying to teach us a lesson. Just because it is not haram does not mean it is okay. A horrible person is commanding you to do something for their entertainment and leisure and pleasure. Do not just answer them "yeah, I will do it. I am at your service." It is wrong to do so at that moment.
Now look. Imam al-Hadi was forced to recite a poem. Right after he said, "I am not of the poets." Look at the bone chilling poem Imam al-Hadi gives. He follows it with: "Baatu 'ala qullalil ajbali tahrusuhum, ghulbul rijaal fa lan tanfa'hum al qullalu, wastanzalu ba'da 'izzin imin ma'aqilihim, wa uskinu hufarran, ya bi'sa ma nazallu, Nadahum saarikhun min ba'di dafnihim, aynal asirratu wal teejanu wal hullalu, Aynal wujooh allatee kaanat muna'amatan, min dooniha tudhrabbul astaaru wal kilalu, fa asfahhal qabra 'anhum heena saa'alahum, tilkal wujooha 'alayhal dooda yaqtatilu, qad taal ma akkalu dahran wa qad sharibu, wa asbahool yawma ba'dal akli qad ukkilu."
Al-Mutawakkil was drunk holding his glass of wine, due to how shocked he was, he dropped it and it spilled all on the floor. Imam al-Hadi, if you read these words and you know the meanings, it is truly deep and rich with wisdom and knowledge. And he is talking to Al-Mutawakkil.
Now some say the beginning of the poem goes "fa anshad al imam." "Fa anshada" means the Imam just recited a poem. It doesn't mean he necessarily made it. But it can mean he made it. How do you know that this is a poem that he made on the spot? Because of the context of the poem is addressing Mutawakkil. "Qad taal ma akkalu dahran wa qad sharibu" How much did they eat and drink? And he is eating and drinking and partying right in front of him. So you can tell there are context clues that the Imam just brought it on the spot. A person who is not from the poets brings a poem just like that with deep rich meaning.
Imam al-Hadi, alayhi assalam, due to this wonderful wisdom that he would exhibit, scholars again of Ahlul Sunnah before Ahlul Shi'a, would say that we, for example, Al-Dhahabi the famous historian would mention "Kan faqeehan, Imaman, Muta'abidan, wa kana muftiyan salih." That he was a faqih - a grand scholar, Imam - leader for the Muslims, Muta'abidan - worshipper, wa kana muftiyan salih - and he would give lessons and wisdom and rulings and he was extremely pure while doing so.
And you continue with Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami, another Sunni 'alim would mention "Kana waritha abeehi 'ilman wa sakhaa'", he inherited his father's knowledge and generosity. Imam Ali Al-Hadi.
Again, how impressed are we with him? Wait until we see Imam Hassan al-Askari, alayhi assalam. And do not forget towards the end, which we are coming nearer to now, we will then calculate the possibility and probability of all this being a phenomenon.
Imam al-Askari assumes Imamah in the year 868 of the common era, and there were roughly 25 million Muslims. Imam al-Askari, at that time in history, there were many people writing refutations against Islam. And this was a very big problem at the time because you need answers to these questions, otherwise it removes the certainty and conviction of people's hearts. Is my religion really true? I read this. How many people have we seen, they listen to someone and they get affected negatively and they leave their beliefs and system, their belief system.
There was a man by the name of Ishaq al-Kindi who wrote a book called The Contradictions of the Holy Qur'an. People were afraid because to them it made sense. And the evil ruler, the caliph, Al-Mu'taz at the time, sorry, Al-Mu'tamid, he did not know anyone who could answer these questions except the man who he is currently tormenting and putting under house arrest, Imam Hassan al-Askari, alayhi assalam.
He says "We need you to answer these questions. The book - respond to it. Because people are about to leave Islam because of it." And he responds back to each and every question and concern, that Ishaq al-Kindi burnt and ripped the book to pieces because of the convincing answers that he received from Imam Hassan al-Askari, who completely preserved Islam for us, as they all did, aleyhum assalam.
One day there was a man, the man was making the sky rain when there was a period of severe drought. This man was a Christian monk. And people again were leaving Islam because, "Look, it is raining, we are praying Salatul Istisqa', it is not raining, the rain prayer, as we are failing, and he just raises his hands and it rains. Then Christianity is the way to go."
Again the caliph Al-Mu'tamid does not know what to do except bring the most knowledgeable of the time, Imam Hassan al-Askari. He says "Help us. This is a problem." To which Imam Hassan al-Askari says "Next time he does that, let me be there and I will tell you what to do next."
They say "Christian monk, make it rain." Everyone is watching. He raises his hand. Imam al-Askari says, "Take what is in his hand, bring it to me." They confiscate what is in his hand. They bring it to him. He says, "Do you see this?" They say "What is it?" "It is a bone from the prophets of Allah." One of the prophets of Allah, they had dug up the grave, him and his people, and he extracted a bone from them. And they would say "Ya Allah by the bone we have make it rain" and it would rain. And that was the reason people then went back to Islam at that time. They saw that this was just a big gimmick, but they used something to help provide the reasoning and doing, a bone of the prophet. "On behalf of it, make it rain" IImam al-Askari prevented that from happening.
Imam Hassan al-Askari produced many wonderful pieces of work and literature for us. One of them is a tafsir of the Holy Qur'an. If there is a tafsir you want to read, an exegesis, analyzation of the Qur'an, it is the tafsir of the Imam of Ahlul Bayt, brothers and sisters. It is called "Tafsir Al-Askari". Many people have discussed and debated whether this is really from him or not. The evidence suggests that it probably is. And so if there is a tafsir, brothers or sisters out there, read it. From the Imam himself.
Another work "Al Muqni' of Imam Hassan Al-Askari." It is a collection of jurisprudential rulings that is Imam al-Askari provides for us to be using as a form of guidance in our lives, yet so many people do not know, unfortunately. And how impressive is Imam al-Askari?
Sahib al-Zaman, 'aleyhi asalam, 'ajal Allahu ta'ala farajahul shareef, assumes Imamah in the year 873. And again there were roughly 23 or actually 25 million Muslims at the time. Imam al-Mahdi, alayhi assalam, due to the ongoing ghaiba, there is not too much content from the Imam's life we could observe and examine and study. Because he went into the minor occultation when he was five years old. But there is a lot of material after, post his ghaiba.
For example, he would tell people how many children they would have. A man by the name of Zainul Aberdeen would say to the representative of Imam al-Mahdi, Husayn bin Rawh, "I need a child. We are not having children. Make me, tell the Imam to make a du'a for me." He makes a du'a, Imam answers his du'a and he says, "Tell the man he is going to have not just one, two sons." One observation, how does he know that? "And one of them is going to be a very grand 'alim." One of them was Shaikh al-Saduq, the very famous Shaikh al-Saduq, who is a cornerstone of our jurisprudence and belief when he provides his wonderful work to our school of thought. And he was born out of the du'a of Imam Mehdi. How is he supposed to know that? Except from the will of Allah?
And he would tell his representatives, for example, so you have these moments where he exhibits brilliance, like he tells his representative, "You will die in three days, then your son is going to take lead. Uthman bin Sa'eed, you are going to die three days later. And then afterwards, your son, Muhammad bin Uthman will be the representative", so on and so forth. He exhibits these moments.
But remember, due to the ongoing ghaiba, there is not too much material. But by the eleventh Imam, we could just assume that the pattern continues to the twelfth Imam. Because the previous one made that clear. And so inshaAllah when the Imam reappears, he will exhibit for us moments of brilliance and knowledge that truly transcends time.
Now, by the end of all of this, my dear respected brothers and sisters, let us go back to the compound probability of independent events, which remember calls for the multiplying of the odds to find the overall possibility of all events occurring.
So what are the odds that Imam Ali is the most knowledgeable of all these people? One Imam over all the people, his people, meaning all the Muslims at the time, a better way to say it, 1 million. 1 over 1 million, multiplied by the odds of each event. So 1 over 1 million concerning Imam Ali, multiplied by 1 over 4.8 million concerning Imam al-Hassan, multiplied by 1 over 5.4 million, Aba Abdillah, multiplied by 1 over 6.1 million, multiplied by 10 million, 12 million, 15 million, 18 million, 20 million, 22 million, multiplied by 1 over 25 million, multiplied by 1 over 25 million - who knows good math here? You get - I am not expecting you to know, this is really big. You get a very large number by way of 1 in 1.65291 septenvigintillion or 1 followed by eighty four zeros (10^84).
The odds of this phenomenon being a reality where the father is the most knowledgeable of all the people, then his son is the most knowledgeable of all the people several times, twelve times in a row, is 1 followed by eighty four zeros, that number, 1 in that number. That is the odd or that is the odds of this occurring.
If you still believe that is one big coincidence, then you have a better chance of winning the lottery over ten thousand times. The mega powerball lottery, because it is 1 in 200 million chance of winning. You have better odds of walking outside here right now, brothers and sisters, and getting hit by a meteorite than this being a reality.
Well, it was a reality. From the references we show, from the knowledge that they exhibit, they should not know these things at their time. No one expects that. Imam al-Sadiq talking about the center of the universe not being the earth, or Amir ul mu'mineen in this black hole situation, or the Imams answering these difficult questions and everyone attesting they are the most knowledgeable. Of course, they are the most knowledgeable of the entire time in the globe. But just to make things more controlled, we study and calculate just the Muslim population. But we are that confident that no one in the entire world at the time was more knowledgeable than Muhammad and Aali Muhammad, brothers and sisters.
Therefore, if you still think this is one big coincidence, by all means, go win the lottery 12 million times, or how many times you would like. Because you have better chances of that being a success. Otherwise if you have some intellect, or some respect for your intellect, then you will say this cannot be just one big coincidence. Yes, the possibility is there 1 in, whatever that number is called, septenvigintillion.
But truly, be true to yourself, where do you see this phenomenon occurring, brothers and sisters? You do not. Therefore, if you have respect for the intellect that Allah has given you, then you would accept that they, that there is some divine intervention by God sent upon the earth, Imams of Ahlul Bayt, through the Messenger of Allah to help guide man and woman kind to be as emissaries, role models and leaders for all of us here today.
My dear respected brothers and sisters, know the rights of your Imams and understand and appreciate the wisdom, the plethora of wisdom, the sanctum full of invaluable wisdom that they have to share with all of us and the reality is this cannot just simply be one big coincidence. Otherwise, as mentioned, you have better odds of these insane things occurring. Go win the lottery, go do this, go do that. And this will not be a case that should happen. Yet it was a case. Accept the facts for what they are and believe in Allah Subhana wa ta'ala, His messenger and the Ahlul Bayt.
Wal-hamdulillah rabb al-'alameen, wa sallali Allahumma 'ala Muhammadan wa alihi al-tayyibeen al-tahireen. Allahumma salli ala Muhammad wa aali Muhammad. Thank you very much. Wal salaamu alaikum wa rahmatullah.
Bismillah al-rahman ar-rahim, Al-Hamdulillah rabb al-'alameen wassalatu wassalamu 'ala ashrafil anbiyya' wal mursalin Abal Qasim al Mustafa Muhammad. [Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammadin wa aali Muhammad] wa 'ala ahli baytihil tayyibeen al tahireen alladheena adhaba Allahu'anhum al rijsa wa tahharahum tatheera. Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammad wa aali Muhammad.