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15 Questions

Adam (AS) is a prophet and every prophet is infallible. Adam (AS) did not commit any sin at all. He was not given an obligatory order to avoid that tree but was just been advised as a good advise to follow. It was the best for Adam (AS) to avoid that tree but it was never an order to him to do so. We need to distinguish between the order and the advice.

Translations of Quranic meanings are not accurate and some translations are misguiding by translating the advice as an order.

'Shaitan swore by Allah to Adam and Eve that: I am a well wishes, sincerely advising you (Sura 7, verse 21)

Adam (AS) never thought that any one can swear wrongly by the name of Allah.

He thought that it was a sincere advice, and he did not go against any obligatory order from Allah (SWT).

Wassalam.

No. This claim has come from non Muslims to some Muslims who do not follow Ahlul Bayt (AS). You can read it in Jewish books and in the old Testaments.

Authentic Shia Hadeeths refute the claim of creating of Hawwa from a rib of Adam. 
If you find such claim in some Shia books, such books have taken it from Sunni books as we have many Shia books mention Sunni narrations which are not authentic in our books. Such narrations have no value for us, especially when we have authentic narrations refuting the contents of it.

Refuting the "Rib" claim has come very clearly from Imam Mohammad Al-Baqir (AS) who was been asked by Amr Ibn Abi Al Miqdad: From what Allah has created  Hawwa? Imam Asked him: What do people say? He said: They say that she was created from a rib of Adams. Imam Al-Baqir said: They are lying. Was it difficult for Allah to create her but only from Adam's rib? In fact, Allah created  Hawwa from the same clay from which He created Adam. (Biharul Anwaar from Tafseer Al-Ayaashi).

Also Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) has refuted  this false claim in a Hadeeth which was narrated through authentic chain of narrators and mentioned in books like Manlaa Yahdharul Faqeeh 3/379 and 'Elal Al-Shara'i 1/17.
Wassalam.
 

Bismihi ta'ala

No, this is incorrect, as far as the Shi'a creed is concerned. We have answered this question in detail in other posts. 

With prayers for your success. 

Narrations say that the tree was a grape "tree", a wheat/grain "tree", or the tree of envy of Ahl al-Bayt (A), which Adam and Eve ate from and then became envious of blessings and position given to the Ahl al-Bayt (A) and their closeness to God; for that reason, God cast them to earth, and they had to repent. [For instance, see Uyun Akhbar al-Rida (A)].

It is related from Imam al-Rida (A) that all these views are correct in that it was a tree that bore more than one type of produce, since it was not a normal tree. 

"Apple" is not present in narrations but to my knowledge the idea of it being an apple tree was also a later addition to Christianity.