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as salam alaikum

Some Sunni schools put emphasis on classifying the ritual prayers in Fard, Sunnah and Nafl. Accordingly, a Fard prayer is a mandatory prayer that Allah has prescribed on His servants (like the five daily prayers). A Sunnah prayer is complementary to the Fard prayer and it is the one that the believer should not miss without justification; however if there is a particular justification, it can be missed. A Nafl prayer is a optional prayer whose performance bring particular blessings but it is not compulsory in any case.

In the Shi'i world all supererogatory prayers are usually called "Nawafil" (plural of "Nafl"). There are ahadith in some Shi'i books, like "Tahdhib al-Ahkam" by Shaykh Tusi, from which we can derive the preference of some Nawafil more than others. 

With prayers for your success.

Bismillah

Thank you for your question. If your premise was that only reported actions of the Prophet (saw) are allowed, no matter what society or context, and that everything else is forbidden, then travelling by plane would not be allowed as planes were not invented at the time of the Prophet (saw) and since he (saw) didn't travel on one, travelling on one is not allowed.

However, if your premise in following the sunnah is that all actions are allowed, except for those forbidden by the Prophet (saw), and that the rest of his (saw) actions either preferable or obligatory (that distinction being decipherable through certain means), then that would not necessitate travelling on a plane being impermissible.

Most scholars and believers work on the second type of premise and others like it rather than the first, and that is why travelling by plane (anywhere) is allowed by the vast majority.

May you always be successful. 

The daily obligatory Prayers are obligatory to be performed in its time, and the recommended Nafilah for every obligatory Prayer is just recommended and not obligatory. Recommended prayers are very useful and get us nearness to Allah (SWT) but hey are not obligatory on us. There are narrations that recommended prayers are obligatory on the Prophet (SAWA).

We need to try our best to perform the recommended prayers as much as we can, to gain frm the great benefits of it and to be more near to Allah (SWT). In Hadeeth Qudsi that Allah (SWT) says: My servant keeps on performing recommended prayers till I love him, and when I ove im, I will be his ears with which he hears in, and his eyes with which he sees, and hand with which he acts.....

Recommended prayers are not Wajib that if we leave it like we have left an obligatory, but it is very much helpful in our spiritual uplift and we should never ignore trying to perform the recommended prayers as much as we can.

Wassalam.

Yes