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Sura Al-Hamd and Sura al-Tawheed and Ayatul Kursi. It is always good to suplicate : ALLAHUMMA Salli Ala Muhammad Wa Aali Muhammad, Allahumma Ihdini Lima Tohibbu wa Tardha.

Wassalam.

Generally, this understanding is taken from what has been narrated about the revelation of a surah or ayat. 

However, sometimes there are contextual clues. For instance, if a verse discusses a historical event that happened after the hijrah, such as the Battle of Badr, it is understood that it was revealed in Medina.

Also, the style and content of Meccan verses are somewhat different from the style and content of Medinan verses. The Meccan verses tend to be shorter and focus more on the existence of God, the afterlife, and important ethical points, whereas the Medinan verses tend to be longer and also discuss matters such as legislation. This isn't an absolute rule but also lends some evidence.

It is not allowed during obligatory Prayer (Salah) to add Rokoo' or  Sojood because it will invalidate the Salah. Reciting any of the four verses of obligatory Sajda is not allowed in obligatory Salah. If you do Sajda for reciting or listening to any of the four verses of obligatory Sajda, you Salah becomes invalid and you need to perform the Salah again. 
Wassalam.

Bismihi ta'ala

In fact, it is a very good thing. Although you might think that you are distracted, or your mind is somewhere else, but getting used to remembering Almighty God frequently is a wonderful quality. 

It will minimise the chance of committing sin, and also keeping you vigilant and alert. Gradually, while multi-tasking, you will be able to master your concentration, and it will all have positive impact as well. 

With prayers for your success.