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If you touch a Najis item e.g. a dog, with wetness, then your touching part of your body or cloth becomes Najis and needs to be washed with water to be Taahir. If you touch a dog or any Najis item with out wetness, then your body of cloth is not Najis.

For health precaution, you are advised not to touch a dog even with dry hands because of the possibility of transfer of microbes or parasites from the dog to your body. You can read on the medical researches published online about the dangerous illnesses which can come to humans from dogs. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5319273/#:~:text=Viral%20infections%20such%20as%20rabies,staphylococcus%20aureus%20are%20the%20most

Wassalam.

Bismihi ta'ala

You would be allowed to have a shepherd dog or a guard dog, and it will be very useful to do so. Keep in mind that a dog is still externally najis, and you must still treat it as such. For example, if the dog is wet, and it touches you, or you touch it, or it licks you, or its hair gets onto you, etc, then you will need to purify yourself. 

It would also be important for you not to allow the dog inside your house, or in areas you need to keep tahir, and so on. 

And Allah knows best. 

Bismihi ta'ala

There is no shar'i problem in touching, patting or feeding  a dog. If your hands, or the dog is wet, then after patting you must wash your hand, because contamination of najasah occurs with contact and wetness. 

But if it is dry, then you do not need to do anything. 

And Allah knows best. 

Bismillah

Thank you for your question. The impurity that transfers from a dog needs to be purified from your clothes and place of prayer before you pray. The presence of a dog in itself is not a problem from a jurisprudential perspective. Perhaps you can confine it in an area in your house which you can purify afterwards if there are any places that you are sure impurities have transferred.

May you always be successful