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What is the name of the poem that Yazeed recited when he saw the head of Imam Hussain (as) and where can I find it in the Islamic sources?
Tabari mentioned in his famous book of history Tareekh al-Tabari (V. 8, P.187) that Yazeed openly declared his infidelity and denying Islam when he saw the head of Imam Husain (AS) by saying:
لعبت هاشم بالملك فلا. خبرٌ جاء ولا وحيٌ نزل
Hashim family (of the Prophet) played with rule, otherwise, nothing came from God, nor any revelation was sent.
This poem of the cursed Yazeed is narrated in many other Sunni books.
As we know, having a kunya, or teknonym is mustahab, and customarily it is saying the father/mother of, or Abū/Um , and the name of the elder son. At times it could be the elder daughter, or maybe not the elder son. Of course, this is also something very special and unique to the Arabic language as well.
For example, for the holy Prophet (s.a.w.), we say Abū al-Qāsim, or Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.), we say Abū Abdullah, even though his elder son was Isma'il.
Or for Imam al-Mahdi (a.a.f.), we say Abā Sālih. And other Imams (a.s.) as well.
Even with Abū Sufyān, apparently in history, he did not have a son by the name of Sufyān.
Although it is said the Imam Husain (a.s.) did have a son by the name of 'Abdullah, but he was not the older son.
As Shi'ah, our belief is that the names, the titles, and the teknonyms of our Ma'sumeen (a.s.) are all designated and appointed by Allah ta'ala, through Gabriel (a.s.) and given by the Prophet (s.a.w.).
There has been mentioning that the holy Prophet (s.a.w.) referred to Imam Husain (a.s.) with this kunya while he was still very young.
And Allah knows best
اللهمّ بالحسين الوجيه وجدّه وأبيه واُمه وأخيه والمعصومين من بنيه اجعلني مع الحسين وآله الطاهرين وأصحابه الطيّبين .
Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Hussain (AS) are known as the masters of the youth of paradise. Are the youths referring to people who died as youths or everyone, as I have heard that everyone becomes a youth in paradise?
No doubt at all that Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Husain (AS) are the two masters of all the youth in Paradise. This fact has been mentioned in many Hadeeths in Sunni and Shia books. The Hadeeth states also : Their father is better than them وأبوهما خير منهما. Al-Mustadrak ala al-Saheehain by al-Haakim al-Nisabori , V.3, P.182.
All believers in the Paradise will be young even if they dies in old age. There will be no old age in Paradise. The masters of all in the Paradise will be the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) being the Best of all creatures, then Imam Ali (As) as it is mentioned in the Hadeeth, then Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Husain (AS).
Are both Imam Hussain (AS) and Hamza Abdul Muttalib (R) known as Sayyid al-Shuhada? If so, is there a difference between them in regards to this title?
Hamza ibn Abdul Muttalib was Sayyid al-Shuhada in his time. Imam Husain (AS) is Sayyid al-Shuhada for all the times till the Day of Judgement.