Did Prophet Muhammad Appoint Anyone After Him? - The Event Of Ghadir 1/8

'Eid al-Gadeer is an event that all Muslims should be celebrating. If, truly, the Prophet appointed Imam Ali, alayhi assalam, as his successor, then why did the people not follow him? There has never been a case where either a Prophet or a successor of a Prophet has ever been chosen by people.

Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim, wal-Hamdulillah Rabbil-'Alameen, was salatu was salam 'ala Muhammad' wa alihi at-tayabeen at-tahareen. Dear brothers and sisters as-salamu alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. Welcome to this episode of these series discussing 'Eid al-Ghadeer.'

'Eid al-Ghadeer is an event, a celebration that all Muslims should be celebrating that occurred on the 18th day of Dhul Hujjah, which is the last month of the Islamic calendar in the last year of the life of the Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam, which as the hujjaj, the pilgrims who performed Hajj with Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam, were returning back to their destinations on the 18th day of the Dhul Hujjah at a place known as Ghadeer Khumm, Ghadeer simply means a pond. So at a pond known as Khumm, the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam, asked the Muslims to come back and return. That location of Ghadeer Khumm is a strategic location from which most of the people that are heading back to their places would be passing by.

So the Prophet sees that opportunity and called the Muslims and he gave a very important sermon telling them that soon he will be leaving this dunya and he is going to meet his Lord and therefore he does not want to leave the nation without completing the religion of Islam, and that is by appointing Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, Amir al-Mu'minin, salawtullahi wa assalamu 'alay, as the master of the Muslims after him, as the khaleefa of Rasul Allah sallallahu 'alayhi wa aali. And on that day, which is the 18th day of Dhul Hijjah and the final year of the life of a Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam, the Prophet clearly announced Amir al-Mu'minin, salawtullahi wa assalamu 'alay, and explicitly announced him as being the khalifa and the master of the Muslims.

We will talk more about the event itself, the ahadith or the traditions about that, the sources which talk about this event. However, before we get to that stage, we need to have an introduction, we need to have a build-up to get to that level. So we will ask some questions that are being raised by Muslims throughout the centuries. And these questions include the following: one, did Rasul Allah sallallahu 'alayhi wa alih, truly appoint 'Ali ibn Abi Talib as his khalifa, as his successor? And two, if truly the Prophet appointed Imam Ali, alayhi assalam, as his successor, then why did the people not follow him? How many people were present at 'Eid al-Ghadeer on that event? Was it just tens of people? Are we talking about hundreds of people or maybe thousands of people? Then what happened why did those people not follow the command of Rasul Allah sallallahu 'alayhi wa alih.

Or is it the case as some people pause these questions that the Prophet, salallahu 'alayhi wa alih, never really appointed anyone, and rather he just left it up to the Muslims to decide. So these are some important questions we need to address. And we will start with that last one that I posed, which basically is the following. Did the Rasul Allah salallahu 'alayhi wa alih, not appoint anyone after him? If that is the case, let us first of all, examine this question in three ways one: in the life of all Prophets, and those specifically mentioned in the Qur'an, do we ever find a case where a Prophet leaves his nation, leaves his people and does not appoint people, does not appoint someone to guide them, to lead them?

Or has it always any time been a case where people, for example, the Prophets tell the people, you choose who is going to be your leader? Do we have such an example from the Qur'an? Let's take a look at this. So, first of all, when we take a look at the chosen ones, the Prophets, has it ever been a case where Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala tells any community that you guys, find someone from you who is really good, virtuous, kind, knowledgeable, and you choose him as a Prophet, is there ever been a case like this? And the obvious answer is no.

Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala, chooses His messengers. He chooses His people, the people to whom He will commission and order to deliver the message. It's never been a case where the people chose a prophet, Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala says, "Inna Allah astafa Adama" (3:33), Allah has chosen Adam. And who else? Ruh and Nuh. And who else? "Wa ala Ibrahim wa ala 'Imran 'ala alameen" (3:33) and the family of Ibrahim and the family of 'Imran over the people over the world.

So what happened here is there is a choice. Allah tells Dawood, alayhi assalam, Oh Dawood, we are making you khaleefa, khaleefa. Allah tells the angels, when he wanted to create Adam, I am making a khaleefa - ja'ilun fil ardhee khaleefa (2:30). So it's always been a case or the case when the Prophet, when Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala chooses who the Prophets are. Now, someone will ask, well, that's when it comes to Prophets, but we're not talking about Prophets here. We are talking about Ali ibn Abi Talib, salaamullahi alay. And we're not saying he's a Prophet. He was saying about the succession to Prophethood, say no problem. So let's take a look at the holy Qur'an and see. Has it ever been a case when people or when a Prophet is deciding someone to lead the people, he just tells them you choose? Let's take it three examples in particular.

One, when Prophet Musa, alayhi assalam, wanted, or was asked by Bani Isra'il that we want you to take 70 people or some people with you as you're receiving the scriptures so that they kind of witness the event and they will come back and tell us that indeed this revelation is from Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala is from God Almighty, and they kind of give their testimony for you. Now, what happened when the children of Isra'il ask Prophet Musa , alayhi assalam, to do this. Did he tell them, you choose the people and I will take them with me? Is that what happened? Well, that's not what the Qur'an tells us. Allah says in the Qur'an Musa, alayhi assalam ikhtar, ikhtar ya'nee he chose 70 people. He did not tell them, you people choose and I will take. He chose, he decided who's going to come with him. So he appointed those 70, took them with him. That's one example.

Example two. When Prophet Musa, alayhi assalam, was going to Mount Sinai to receive the Tawrat, did he tell the people, that listen, I am going to leave for a few days, in fact, it was originally 30 days, but then Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala added an extra 10 days, so 40 days. So I suppose 30, 40 days, less than two months. Did he gather the people and tell them, listen, I am gone for about a month or maybe two months? It's a short time during this time, behave yourselves until I get back, or did he actually tell them that you choose someone to lead, and then when I come back, we'll figure things out? No. What did he do? He appointed his brother, Haroon. He told his brother, Haroon, Ukhlufnee, meaning you succeed me, you become the leader in my absence. So during this whole trip, everyone should listen to Haroon, alayhi assalam, his brother. So that's example number two.

Example number three. When it came the time of some of the children of Israel being oppressed, they came to a Prophet of theirs and they told their Prophet, why don't you pray to Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala, pray to Allah to send us a king, a king, not a prophet, someone to lead us, malik. And this king would hopefully liberate us from the oppressors who are oppressing us. Did their Prophet say to them, well, why don't you guys just get together and choose someone? Have a democracy here, let's vote. Oh, let's have some candidates and one of you guys can run for the monarchy here or the leadership and whomever wins the votes, he will become the leader. Is that what happened? No. Their Prophet, prayed to Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala as mentioned in Surat al-Baqarah and Allah sent and chose Talut as the people's leader.

What happened? People objected. They said, why did Allah choose him? He is not one of the wealthy ones. He is not one of them, let's say elites. So why did Allah choose him? A response came that Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala has chosen him because he is qualified in terms of his knowledge and in terms of his physical being that he can lead people. And then the example of the Talut, by the way, is very nice analogy to Amir al-Mu'minin, salamullahi alay, in the sense that when the Prophet, salallahu alay wa alih, appointed him as the leader of the Muslims, as the successor of Rasul Allah, salallahu alay wa alih, again, people said, why him? So there is precedence in the Qur'an about people objecting, about what Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala chooses for the people, people want someone, they think of someone, but Allah knows best whomever he chooses to carry his message.

So these are three examples from the Qur'an that show us that, first of all, no Prophet was ever chosen by his community, it is Allah who chooses the Prophets. Second, any time a Prophet wanted to choose or wanted to leave people, he would always appoint someone to them, or Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala would appoint someone to lead the people, even when it comes in a battle, leading them in a fight, Talut was ordered to become the leader of those people to lead them in a battle, in a fight, in a war, so he did so. And also when Musa, alayhi assalam, wanted to take people with him. He did not leave it up to the vote. So there is no Qur'anic precedence about the people choosing, here.

So now when it comes to this, we see that did Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam, then in this case, become different? He did not follow his predecessors of the Prophets? Well, in order for us to understand this, we truly need to understand the seerah of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam, the traditions of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam, during the lifetime of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa aali.

Was there ever a case where the Prophet left Medina and he told people, you choose who the leader will be until I return. In some cases the Prophet would leave for a few days, even these few days did he leave the people without guidance, without leadership? That's something important for us to understand. Also, if we take a look at the Seerah, the tradition of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, when people came and questioned him about his faith, about his religion.

And, in some cases offered their support, however, they offered it in return for something, for leadership. Did the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, ever say, OK, I will make a deal with you, you support me and I'll support you to become the leaders after me? Is there ever a case like this? Also, any time the Prophet,, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, sends people to fight, prepares an army, has there ever been a case where the Prophet tells the army, no matter how small or big, you people choose one of you who will become the leader? Or did the Prophet always, always appoint someone? So let us take a look at those, Inshallah, and hopefully we'll be able to understand. So for now, what I hope we've accomplished is the following:

One, before the time of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam, there has never been a case where either a Prophet or a successor of a Prophet or even a king, that leads people to victory in war has ever been chosen by people? It's always rather Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala, appoints someone or the Prophets of that time like Musa, alayhi assalam, appointing someone. And that is important for us to understand and to learn.

Inshallah in the next episode, we will explore the tradition of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam, with regards to leaving the decision up to the people versus him choosing to appoint someone in his lifetime until I see you in that next episode, InshaAllah, of this special series about 'Eid al-Ghadeer I ask Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala, to shower us all with his mercy and to accept our deeds. Thank you. Wa assalamu alaykum wa Rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.