The Tradition Of Prophet Muhammad - The Event Of Ghadir 2/8

'Eid al-Ghadeer is an event that all Muslims should be celebrating. If truly the Prophet appointed Imam Ali, alayhi assalam, as a successor, then why did the people not follow him? There has never been a case where either a Prophet or a successor of a Prophet has ever been chosen by people.

Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim, wal-Hamdulillah Rabbil-'Alameen wa assalatu wa assalamu 'ala Muhammadan wa alihi at-tayyabeen at-tahareen. Dear brothers and sisters, as-salamu 'alaikum wa Rahmatullahee wa barakatu. Welcome to this episode of this special series discussing 'Eid al-Ghadeer. In the previous episode we looked at the traditions of Prophets before Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam, and we explored very briefly, if there was any case of any of the Prophets, either being chosen by the people, and we said no, it is always Allah who appoints the Prophets. We also said that whenever a Prophet wanted to leave his people, like Musa, alayhi assalam, wanting to leave his people, he appointed someone, his brother Haroon in that particular case, to lead them.

When people asked Prophet Musa, alayhi assalam, that some people should come with him to testify that indeed he is receiving this revelation from Allah, Subhana wa Ta'ala, he did not tell them you choose. He choose the 70 people himself, according to the Qur'an.And when people came to a Prophet of theirs, asking them for a king to lead them in a battle against Jalut for victory, Allah chose Talut as their king and their leader. And it was not a case where Allah told them, through the Prophet that you know what, you choose, whomever you want. So there is no precedence ever that the Imam or the leader is chosen by the people. This is before the time of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam.

Today we will take a look at the seera the tradition of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam. And our point in discussing this is basically to address the concept of shura, council that the Prophet died and did not appoint anyone after him, is that there the case? Or the Prophet died and told the people, you choose, you choose a leader. So I will basically teach you about religion, Islam, salat, siyam, fasting, etc., etc. But when it comes to the person that is going to lead you after I leave this dunya, you people take care of that business when I'm gone. Is that really the case? Well, let's take a look at the seera, the tradition of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, in his life time.

First of all, in the early days of Islam the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam, in Mecca started preaching about the religion of Islam. Some tribes started to come to Mecca to listen to the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa alehi wa sallam. Ibn Husham in his seerah, he mentions this particular story. He says there is a very big tribe by the name of Bani 'Aamir. Bani 'Aamir they heard about Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa aali. They came, and they were a big tribe.

One of their leaders, a man by the name of Baheera bin Firas. Baheera, tells Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, that listen, this matter, this religion you're preaching about, if we support you, and spreading this religion, and if you succeed, let's say you prevail, the religion becomes prevalent in this area and let's say Bilad ul-Hijaz, then, would you give us the leadership after you? Meaning that we will help you, we'll support you, but if you win, if you prevail, if you do indeed become the master, the political leader, then at that point you return the favour to us. How? You appoint us as your successor. Al-amr, wilayat ul-Amr, the leadership of the succession of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam.

Sallallahu alaihe wa alahi wa sallam. Now, at that time, the Prophet, sallallahu alaihee wa aali, was, of course, in his early days of the message. Muslims were not very strong, very weak, they're being harassed. But look at the reply of Rasul Allah sallallahu 'alaihee wa alayhi wa aali, which also tells us how great he is. What does he tell them? Does he say, yes, sure, I'll give it to you, you help me now, scratch my back, I'll scratch yours. No. He tells them, this matter, referring to the succession after him, this matter is in the hands of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, He chooses whomever He wills.

Do you see how important that is? First of all, it tells us how Rasul Allah sallallahu 'alaihee wa aali, is so honest. He could have, wal 'ayadu bi Llah, may God not allow us to say something like this about him, he could have lied to them, OK, help me now. And then once he prevails, he tells them, you know, goodbye, like what some politicians do. But that is not the politics Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam, he is honest.

From the beginning he tells them, you know what, you want to support me, you're more than welcome to support me, but do not expect anything in return. And as a matter as far as choosing the leader after me, who will lead? What does he say? It is not up to me. It is not up to the people. It is up to who? Allah Subhan wa Ta'ala.

This basically goes hand in hand, in line with the verse in the Qur'an, where Allah says, Allahu 'A'lam, haithu yaj'al reesalatah, Allahu 'Alam (6:124), God knows where He puts His message or whom He chooses to carry His message. That is one example in seerat ibn Husham, as-seerah Nabawiyya. Another example on the same line narrated by ibn Katheeer. Ibn Katheer in his Ta'rikh, in his history, he narrates similar issues, similar incidents from a tribe from Kindah. From a tribe or a group of Bani Ghaffaan. Those people, and there are many others as well, what happened is when they hear about the message of Rasul Allah sallallah 'alayhi wa aali, knowing the great character of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, because it was well known, the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, was known as as-Saddiq al-ameen, the honest, the truthful or the truthful, the honest. So people knew he was telling the truth.

So some tribes tried to seize that opportunity that, you know what, we know this man is for real. We know his character is so great and he has a good chance that he will succeed. So some tribes try to seize that opportunity. So they would come to him and would offer their support, but they want something in return. And what does that they want in return? Leadership after Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa aali.

In all those cases in the cases of Bani 'Amr, in the case of the tribe of Kindah, in the case of Bani Ghaffaan, in the case of the king of Yamama, the king of Yamama, whose name was at the time, as mentioned, Hawza, a Christian man by the name of Hawza. He sends also messengers to Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, this was in Medina. Now that the Prophet has become stronger and they all tell him, we will support you, we will help you, but you return the favour to us when you prevail, when you succeed. And the king of Yamama, in fact, said you don't have to give me the whole thing after you make me part of the leadership after you. In all cases, what does the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam, says, it is a matter up to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala to choose, not up to me.

So that is the time when the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, keeps on emphasizing that leadership after him, his succession is not, up to him even, is not through a shura or basically votes, but rather it is through the choice of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala.

All right, what about the battles or whenever the Prophet left Medina? Do we ever have a case of an army that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam, sends to fight? And he would tell this army, no matter how small or how large, that you people choose someone to lead you, or is it always the Prophet appointing a leader, an Imam to the army? If we go to Sahih al-Bukhari and we look at some of the battles that are mentioned in Sahih al-Bukhari. We find not a single incident where the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam, does not choose a leader. If you go to Sahih al-Bukhari and look at Ghazwat Tabuk or Ghazwat Mu'ta, Mu'ta. The Prophet says to the army, I am appointing, first of all, Zaid ibn Thaabit, as the leader. If he gets killed, then Ja'far ibn Abi Talib, if he gets killed, then 'Abdullah ibn Rawaha. Does he tell them it's up to you? No, it's not the case, not a single time. That's in the battle of Mu'ta.

And another battle, a small battle, known as Sareeat Abdullah ibn Hudhafa as-Silmee Awusa'mee. In that battle, the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, sent a small group, saree, saree means small army, maybe ten, 20 people. Ten, 20 people, yet he puts a man from the Ansar as their leader, says, you are leader, you're the Imam, and you all have to listen to him. Does the Prophet, even when it comes to 20 people, tell them, no, this is dabab or the section of Sareeat Abdullah ibn Hudhafa as-Sehmee, in Sahih Bukhari, the Prophet appoints. Another sareeya, another group called Ghazwat See fil al-Bahar. The Prophet Sallallah 'alaihee wa aleh sends an army by, or close to the sea. Again, he puts a leader by the name of Abu 'Obaida or Aba 'Obaida, says you are the leader, your are their imam.

And the final year of the final time of the life of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam, the Prophet sends the Muslims under the leadership of Osama ibn Zayed, and he says he is the Imam of the army. Everyone from the Mujahideen, from the Ansar, with the exception of Bani Hashem, need to go to the army of Osama ibin Zayed, including great personalities like the first khaleefa, the second khaleefa, they all had to go under the banner of Osama under the leadership of Osama ibin Zayed.

Did he tell them you choose? No, he chose the leader, and at the time, Osama was only 17 years of age, so people objected. They came to Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, they said, ya Rasul Allah, how could you make such a kid become our leader, our Imam? The Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, says, he is capable of it. And you are objecting to me like you objected about me appointing his father earlier before in Mu'ta. You will listen to what I tell you to do. So it's always been the case, the Prophet in small battles and major battles, he appoints an Imam, in the Battle of Khaibar. Those four battles I mentioned are all in Sahih Bukhari.

The Battle of Khaibar, you go to Tah'reekh al-Umam wal Maluk by ibn Jareer At-tabaree, you'll see the Prophet appoints the first khaleefa as the commander of the army. He appoints him. He comes back, unable to conquer Khaibar. Then he appoints the second khaleefa as the commander, he appoints him, comes back unable. Then the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, says: tomorrow, I am appointing a man who loves Allah and His Messenger and whom Allah and His Messenger love him. He is Karrar, he's one who brings victory, not farrar. He doesn't run away and he will bring victory to the Muslims.

Who does he appoint? Ali ibn Abi Talib, Ameer al-Mu'minin, salawatullahee wa salamuhu 'alay, and indeed victory is given to the Muslims. Now a question might be raised, why did the Prophet choose the first, the second and then Imam Ali? I'll come to that, InshaAllah, in a later episode because there is a wisdom behind this. The Prophet wanted to show the Muslims who is capable of leading, who is capable of bringing victory.

So these are five examples of battles in which the Prophet sends Muslims, small or groups of them large, where he appoints the leader and four of them are in Sahih al-Bukhari, the fifth one is in Ta'reekha La Ma'muluk by ibn Jareer al-Thabit. Do we have a case of the Prophet leaving Medina without appointing someone? Again, not. When the Prophet wanted to leave for the battle of Tabuk, which is the last battle the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wa aali, participated in it personally. And that battle of Tabuk is very interesting. Do You know? More than 90 verses or about 90 verses are revealed in the Qur'an in Surah at-Tawbah about the battle of Tabuk because Muslims' reaction or the situation of Islam in that battle was so important, and so beneficial for us to learn about that Allah chose 90 versus, put 90 versus the Qur'an in Surah at-Tawbah discussing the battle of Tabuk. So many lessons in that battle.

The Prophet leaves Madinah. Does he tell the people of Medina, I'm going because he had less for 50 days, 50 days, less than two months. He tells them, you know what? I'm away for two months, 50 days, when I come back, I'll take care of you guys. Meanwhile, you choose someone to lead you, no. He appoints Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali ibnu Abi Talib, salaamullah wa alay, as the commander, as the leader of the Muslims. And he tells him this famous hadith, which is narrated in Sahih al-Bukhari and the story is found in Tareekh Ibn al-Muluk by ibn Jareera at-Tabaree where he tells him, You are to me to Imam Ali 'alaihi assalam, anta minnee, you are to me like Haroon is to Musa, except there is no Prophet after me. You are to me like Haroon was to Musa. And that in itself is also very interesting. What was Haroon to Musa? What was the status of Haroon to Musa? We'll talk about that Insha'Allah next time or in some of those episodes that we have in the future.

So to summarize, we do not have a single example from the Prophet's predecessors, where they tell their people when it comes to Imamah, when it comes to leadership, you choose and we will be happy with your choice. We do not have an example from the Sunnah of Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam, whether it is when he leaves Medina, whether when he appoints the commanders, or the Imams, or the leaders of the army that he send out, not a single time does the Prophet tell people, you choose.

Then how can we say that the Prophet left this whole nation and telling them it is up to you to decide, you vote? And if that is the case, how did the voting system occur and happen after Rasul Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam? We will discuss that, InshaAllah in this next episode of these special series of 'Eid al-Ghadeer. Until I see you then may Allah bless you. As-salamu 'alaikum wa Rahmatullahe wa barakatu.