Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

26. What is the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs?

27. When is a verb intransitive?

28. How can an intransitive verb be made transitive?

29. How can a transitive verb be made intransitive?

26. A transitive verb is a verb who, in addition to its agent, occurs on an objective compliment, for example: بَرَیتُ القَلَمَ. An intransitive verb only occurs with an agent, for example: أثمَرَتِ الشَّجَرَةُ. The transitive verb is connected to its objective compliment with preposition or without a preposition but an intransitive verb suffices itself with its agent.

27. A verb intransitive if it denotes a natural characteristic as in شَجُعَ, a form as in طالَ, a color as in زَرِقَ, a defect as in عَوِرَ, a decoration as in غَیِدَ, being clean as in طَهُرَ, Being unclean as in قَذُرَ, being secluded as in فَرَغَ, being full as in شَبِعَ, and different natural states such as مَرِضَ.

28. An intransitive verb is made transitive by adding a hamza to the beginning of the word, for example: أکرَمَ, or doubling the second root letter, for example: کَرَّمَ, or by a jār preposition, for example: رَغِبتُ في العلمِ.

29. A transitive verb is made intransitive if it is put in the forms of mutawa'ah, for example: جمَّعتُهُ فَتَجَمَّعَ.