Table of Contents

Chapter 23: On Al-Ridha’’s Debates With Al-Ma’mun Regarding The Difference Between Family (Itra) And Nation

23-1 Ali ibn Al-Husayn ibn Shazawayh al-Mo’addib and Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Masroor - May God Be Pleased with Them - narrated that Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Ja’far al-Himyari quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of al-Ryan ibn al-Salt, “Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) attended a session held by Al-Ma’mun in Marv in which some of the scholars of Iraq and Khorasan were present. Then Al-Ma’mun said, “Tell me about the meaning of the following verse, ‘Then We have given the Book for inheritance to such of Our Servants as We have chosen…’1 They answered that the verse refers to all the nation. Then Al-Ma’mun said, “O Abul Hassan! What do you think?” Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) answered, “I do not agree with them. I say that the Honorable the Exalted God exclusively refers to the immaculate progeny of the Prophet (S).”

Al-Ma’mun asked, “How is it that God refers to the immaculate progeny of the Prophet (S) and not the nation?”

بْنِ طاهِرٍ قالَ: كُنْت واقِفاً عَلَى رَأْس أَبي وَعنْدَهُ أَبُوالصَّلْتِ الهَرَوِيِّ وَإِسْحاق بْنِ راهْوَيْه، وَأَحمَدِ بنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَنبَلٍ فَقالَ أَبي: لِيُحَدِّثني كُلِّ رَجُلٍ مِنْكُمْ بِحَدِيثٍ، فَقالَ أَبُو الصَّلْتِ الهَرَوِيِّ: حَدَّثني عَلِيُّ بنُ موسَى الرِّضاعَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ - وَكانَ وَاللَّه رَضِىَ كَما سُمِّي- عَنْ أَبيهِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ، عَن أَبيهِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَن أبِيهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِىّ، عَن أَبيهِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن، عَن أَبِيهِ عَلِيِّ، عَن أَبِيهِ عَلِىِّ بنِ أَبي طالِب‏ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ قالَ: قالَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: الإِيمَانُ قَوْلٌ وَعَمَلٌ؛ فَلَمَّا خَرَجْنَا، قَالَ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ: مَا هَذَا الإِسْنَادُ؟ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبِي: هَذَا سَعُوطُ الَْمجَانِينِ إِذَا سُعِطَ بِهِ الَْمجْنُونُ أَفَاقَ.

23

بابُ ذِكرِ مَجْلِسَ الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مَعَ الْمَأمُونَ فِي الفَرْقِ بَيْنَ العِتْرَةِ وَالاُمَّةِ

1 - حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن بْنِ شاذَوَيْه المُؤَدِّبُ وَجَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَسْرُور رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ ما قالا حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه بْنِ جَعْفَر الحِمْيَريُّ، عَن أَبيهِ، عَن الرَّيانِ بْنِ الصَّلْتِ قالَ حَضَرَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مَجْلِسَ الْمَأْمُونِ بِمَرْوَوَقَدِ اجْتَمَعَ فِي مَجْلِسِهِ جَمَاعَةٌ مِنْ عُلَمَاءِ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ وَخُرَاسَانَ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ: أَخْبِرُونِي عَن مَعْنَى هَذِهِ الآْيَةِ: (ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنا مِنْ عِبادِنا).

فَقَالَتِ الْعُلَمَاءُ: أَرَادَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِذَلِكَ الأُمَّةَ كُلَّهَا. فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ: مَا تَقُولُ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ؟

فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: لا أَقُولُ كَمَا قَالُوا، وَلَكِنِّي أَقُولُ أَرَادَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِذَلِكَ الْعِتْرَةَ الطَّاهِرَةَ.

فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ: وَكَيْفَ عَنَى الْعِتْرَةَ مِنْ دُونِ الأُمَّةِ؟

Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) told him, “If God referred to the nation, then they should all be in Paradise while the Honorable the Exalted God goes on and says, ‘...but there are among them some who wrong their own souls; some who follow a middle course; and some who are, by God's leave, foremost in good deeds; that is the highest Grace.’2

Then God informs that all of them will be in Paradise. The Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘Gardens of Eternity will they enter: therein will they be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls; and their garments there will be of silk.’3 Thus, the verse refers to the immaculate progeny of the Prophet (S) exclusively.

Al-Ma’mun asked, “Who are the immaculate progeny?” Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, “The immaculate progeny are those whom the Honorable the Exalted God describes in His Book by saying, ‘…And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless.’4

They are those about whom the Prophet (S) said the following, “I am leaving among you two weighty things - the Book of God and my progeny; my family. They will not separate from each other until they join me at the Divine Pool (Kawthar). Consider how will you regard me in treating them. O people! Do not teach them, because they are more knowledgeable than you are.” Then the scholars said, “O Abul Hassan! Let us know whether the progeny of the Prophet and the Prophet’s family are the same or not.” Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, “They are the same.”

Then the scholars claimed that the Prophet (S) is related to have said, “My nation is my family” and there is an authentic undeniable tradition according to which the Prophet’s companions agreed unanimously on the fact that Muhammad’s family is his nation.

Abul Hassan (a.s.) said, “Well, tell me whether it is lawful for Muhammad’s family to receive any alms-tax.” They answered, “No, it is unlawful.” Then the Imam (a.s.) asked, “Is it lawful for the nation to receive alms-tax?” They answered, “Yes, it is lawful for them.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “This is the difference between the family and the nation. Woe be to you! Where will they take you? Have you turned away from the Quran? Don’t you know that the issues of Inheritance and Purification are for the Chosen Guided ones and not anyone else?”

فَقَالَ لَهُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إِنَّهُ لَوْ أَرَادَ الأُمَّةَ لَكَانَتْ بِأَجْمَعِهَا فِي الْجَنَّةِ، لِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (فَمِنْهُمْ ظالِمٌ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُمْ مُقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سابِقٌ بِالْخَيْراتِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ذلِكَ هُوَالْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ). ثُمَّ جَمَعَهُمْ كُلَّهُمْ فِي الْجَنَّةِ فَقَالَ: (جَنَّاتُ عَدْنٍ يَدْخُلُونَهَا يُحَلَّوْنَ فِيهَا مِنْ أَسَاوِرَ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ وَلُؤْلُؤًا وَلِبَاسُهُمْ فِيهَا حَرِيرٌ) فَصَارَتِ الْوِرَاثَةُ لِلْعِتْرَةِ الطَّاهِرَةِ لا لِغَيْرِهِمْ.

فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ: مَنِ الْعِتْرَةُ الطَّاهِرَةُ؟

فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: الَّذِينَ وَصَفَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ فَقَالَ جَلَّ وَعَزَّ: (إِنَّما يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيراً). وَهُمُ الَّذِينَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ (إِنِّي مُخَلِّفٌ فِيكُمُ الثَّقَلَيْنِ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَعِتْرَتِي أَهْلَ بَيْتِي، أَلا وَإِنَّهُمَا لَنْ يَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّى يَرِدَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ فَانْظُرُوا كَيْفَ تَخْلُفُونِّي فِيهِمَا. أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ لا تُعَلِّمُوهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ أَعْلَمُ مِنْكُمْ).

قَالَتِ الْعُلَمَاءُ: أَخْبِرْنَا يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ عَنِ الْعِتْرَةِ؛ أَهُمُ الآْلُ أَمْ غَيْرُ الآْلِ؟

فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: هُمُ الآْلُ.

فَقَالَتِ الْعُلَمَاءُ: فَهَذَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏يُؤْثَرُ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: (أُمَّتِي آلِي). وَهَؤُلاءِ أَصْحَابُهُ يَقُولُونَ بِالْخَبَرِ الْمُسْتَفَاضِ الَّذِي لا يُمْكِنُ دَفْعُهُ: (آلُ مُحَمَّدٍ أُمَّتُهُ).

فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَخْبِرُونِي؛ هَلْ تَحْرُمُ الصَّدَقَةُ عَلَى الآْلِ؟ قَالُوا: نَعَمْ.

قَالَ: فَتَحْرُمُ عَلَى الأُمَّةِ؟

قَالُوا: لا.

قَالَ: هَذَا فَرْقُ مَا بَيْنَ الآْلِ وَالأُمَّةِ. وَيْحَكُمْ! أَيْنَ يُذْهَبُ بِكُمْ؟ أَضَرَبْتُمْ عَنِ الذِّكْرِ صَفْحاً أَمْ أَنْتُمْ قَوْمٌ مُسْرِفُونَ؟ أَمَا عَلِمْتُمْ أَنَّهُ وَقَعَتِ الْوِرَاثَةُ وَالطَّهَارَةُ عَلَى الْمُصْطَفَيْنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ دُونَ سَائِرِهِمْ؟

They said, “O Abul Hassan! How can you prove this?” The Imam (a.s.) answered, “This is clear from what the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘And We sent Noah and Abraham, and established in their line Prophethood and Revelation: and some of them were on right guidance. But many of them became rebellious transgressors.’5

Hence, the inheritance of the Book is dedicated to the guided ones, not the evil-doers. Don’t you know that Noah said the following in his supplications to his Lord - the Honorable the Exalted, ‘O my Lord! Surely my son is of my family! And Thy promise is true, and Thou art the justest of Judges!’6 He said this because the Honorable the Exalted God had promised to save him and his family. But the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘O Noah! He is not of thy family: For his conduct is unrighteous. So ask not of Me that of which thou hast no knowledge! I give thee counsel, lest thou act like the ignorant!’7

Al-Ma’mun asked, “Did God give distinction to the Prophet’s progeny over other people?”

Abul Hassan Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, “The Honorable the Exalted God gave distinction to the Prophet’s progeny over other people in the Wise Book.” Al-Ma’mun asked him (a.s.), “Where is that in God’s Book?” Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) told him, “Indeed the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘Allah did choose Adam and Noah, the family of Abraham, and the family of 'Imran above all people. Offspring, one of the other: And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.’8 In another place the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘Or do they envy mankind for what God hath given them of his bounty? But We had already given the people of Abraham the Book and Wisdom, and conferred upon them a great kingdom.’9 After saying this God addresses the believers and says, ‘O ye who believe! Obey God, and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among you.’10 This means those whom God has given them the Book and the Wisdom for which they are envied. Therefore, what is understood from the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘Or do they envy mankind for what God hath given them of his bounty? But We had already given the people of Abraham the Book and Wisdom, and conferred upon them a great kingdom.’11 This refers to obeying the Chosen Immaculate ones.”

The scholars asked, “Let us know if the Honorable the Exalted God has interpreted this choice in the Book?”

قَالُوا: وَمِنْ أَيْنَ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ؟

قَالَ: مِنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ (وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنا نُوحاً وَإِبْراهِيمَ وَجَعَلْنا فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا النُّبُوَّةَ وَالْكِتابَ فَمِنْهُمْ مُهْتَدٍ وَكَثِيرٌ مِنْهُمْ فاسِقُونَ). فَصَارَتْ وِرَاثَةُ النُّبُوَّةِ وَالْكِتَابِ لِلْمُهْتَدِينَ دُونَ الْفَاسِقِينَ. أَمَا عَلِمْتُمْ أَنَّ نُوحاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ حِينَ سَأَلَ رَبَّهُ (فَقالَ رَبِّ إِنَّ ابْنِي مِنْ أَهْلِي وَإِنَّ وَعْدَكَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنْتَ أَحْكَمُ الْحاكِمِينَ) وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَعَدَهُ أَنْ يُنْجِيَهُ وَأَهْلَهُ، فَقَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (يا نُوحُ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ إِنَّهُ عَمَلٌ غَيْرُ صالِحٍ فَلا تَسْئَلْنِ ما لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ إِنِّي أَعِظُكَ أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنَ الْجاهِلِينَ).

فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ: هَلْ فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْعِتْرَةَ عَلَى سَائِرِ النَّاسِ؟

فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَبَانَ فَضْلَ الْعِتْرَةِ عَلَى سَائِرِ النَّاسِ فِي مُحْكَمِ كِتَابِهِ.

فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَأْمُونُ: أَيْنَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ؟

قَالَ لَهُ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: فِي قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ (إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفى‏ آدَمَ وَنُوحاً وَآلَ إِبْراهِيمَ وَآلَ عِمْرانَ عَلَى الْعالَمِينَ ذُرِّيَّةً بَعْضُها مِنْ بَعْضٍ). وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي مَوْضِعٍ آخَرَ: (أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلى‏ ما آتاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ فَقَدْ آتَيْنا آلَ إِبْراهِيمَ الْكِتابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْناهُمْ مُلْكاً عَظِيماً). ثُمَّ رَدَّ الُْمخَاطَبَةَ فِي أَثَرِ هَذَا إِلَى سَائِرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَالَ: (يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ)؛ يَعْنِي الَّذِينَ قَرَنَهُمْ بِالْكِتَابِ وَالْحِكْمَةِ وَحُسِدُوا عَلَيْهِمَا. فَقَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلى‏ ما آتاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ فَقَدْ آتَيْنا آلَ إِبْراهِيمَ الْكِتابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْناهُمْ مُلْكاً عَظِيماً)؛ يَعْنِي الطَّاعَةَ لِلْمُصْطَفَيْنَ الطَّاهِرِينَ. فَالْمُلْكُ هَا هُنَا هُوَ الطَّاعَةُ لَهُمْ.

قَالَتِ الْعُلَمَاءُ: فَأَخْبِرْنَا هَلْ فَسَّرَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى الإصْطِفَاءَ فِي الْكِتَابِ؟

Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) answered, “God has interpreted the surface meaning of this choice in twelve places in addition to many verses in which these meanings are hidden.

First, it is explained in God’s saying, ‘And admonish thy nearest kinsmen…’12 Ubay ibn Ka’b adds13 ‘and your chosen family,’ to the previous verse, and the addition is recorded in Abdullah bin Mas’ud’s copy of the Holy Quran.14 This is certainly a sublime standing, a great excellence, and a grand honor for the Prophet’s family whom are exclusively stated by the Honorable the Exalted God in this verse as ‘your chosen family.”

The second verse regarding this choice is in the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘…And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless.’15 This is a nobility which no one is unaware of or denies except for deviate lost ones since no nobility higher than that is even imaginable.”

The third verse regarding this choice is that in which God gave distinction to the Immaculates over all others and ordered His Prophet (S) to take them along with him to participate in invoking God’s Curse of God in the “invoking verse” where the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘O Muhammad! If anyone disputes in this matter with thee, now after (full) knowledge Hath come to thee, say, “Come! let us gather together,- our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves: Then let us earnestly pray, and invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie!’”16

Then the Prophet (S) brought Ali, Al-Hassan (a.s.), Al-Husayn (a.s.), and (the Blessed Lady) Fatima (a.s.) along with himself. Do you know what the meaning of God’s words “ourselves and yourselves” is?”

The scholars said, “This refers to the Prophet himself.”

Abul Hassan (a.s.) said, “You are wrong. This refers to Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.). This can be proved by the Prophet’s saying, “Let the Luhai’as keep on doing so and I will subjugate them to a man who is like myself” implying Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.).

What is meant by “our sons” is Al-Hassan (a.s.) and Al-Husayn (a.s.), and what is meant by “our women” is (the Blessed Lady) Fatima (a.s.). This is a characteristic which no one can surpass, and a nobility which no human

فَقَالَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: فَسَّرَ الإصْطِفَاءَ فِي الظَّاهِرِ سِوَى الْبَاطِنِ فِي اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ مَوْطِناً وَمَوْضِعاً. فَأَوَّلُ ذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَأَنْذِرِ عَشِيرَتَكَ الأَقْرَبِينَ) وَرَهْطَكَ مِنْهُمُ الُْمخْلَصِينَ، هَكَذَا فِي قِرَاءَةِ أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ، وَهِيَ ثَابِتَةٌ فِي مُصْحَفِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، وَهَذِهِ مَنْزِلَةٌ رَفِيعَةٌ وَفَضْلٌ عَظِيمٌ وَشَرَفٌ عَالٍ حِينَ عَنَى اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِذَلِكَ الآْلَ فَذَكَرَهُ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَهَذِهِ وَاحِدَةٌ.

وَالآْيَةُ الثَّانِيَةُ فِي الإصْطِفَاءِ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (إِنَّما يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيراً)، وَهَذَا الْفَضْلُ الَّذِي لا يَجْحَدُهُ أَحَدٌ مُعَانِدٌ أَصْلاً لأنَّهُ فَضْلٌ بَعْدَ طَهَارَةٍ تُنْتَظَرُ، فَهَذِهِ الثَّانِيَةُ.

وَأَمَّا الثَّالِثَةُ فَحِينَ مَيَّزَ اللَّهُ الطَّاهِرِينَ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ، فَأَمَرَ نَبِيَّهُ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِالْمُبَاهَلَةِ بِهِمْ فِي آيَةِ الابْتِهَالِ، فَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ (فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ ما جاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْناءَنا وَأَبْناءَكُمْ وَنِساءَنا وَنِساءَكُمْ وَأَنْفُسَنا وَأَنْفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَلْ لَعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكاذِبِينَ). فَأَبْرَزَ النَّبِيُ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلِيّاً وَالْحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَيْنَ وَفَاطِمَةَ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ وَقَرَنَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ بِنَفْسِهِ فَهَلْ تَدْرُونَ مَا مَعْنَى قَوْلِهِ (وَأَنْفُسَنا وَأَنْفُسَكُمْ)؟

قَالَتِ الْعُلَمَاءُ: عَنَى بِهِ نَفْسَهُ.

فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: إِنَّمَا عَنَى بِهَا عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. وَمِمَّا يَدُلُّ عَلَى ذَلِكَ قَوْلُ النَّبِيِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: (لَيَنْتَهِيَنَّ بَنُو وَلِيعَةَ أَوْ لأبْعَثَنَّ إِلَيْهِمْ رَجُلاً كَنَفْسِي) يَعْنِي عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، وَعَنَى بِالأَبْنَاءِ الْحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَيْنَ، وَعَنَى بِالنِّسَـاءِ فَاطِمَةَ. فَهَذِهِ خُصُوصِيَّةٌ لا يَتَقَدَّمُهُمْ فِيهَا أَحَدٌ وَفَضْلٌ لا يَلْحَقُهُمْ فِيهِ بَشَرٌ وَشَرَفٌ

being can attain. It is an honor which no person can achieve since the Prophet (S) established Ali (a.s.) to be like himself. This was the third.

The fourth verse regarding this choice is related to when the Prophet (S) ordered everybody to leave his Mosque17 except for his family. The people showed their dissatisfaction for such a procedure and Al-Abbas (the Prophet’s uncle) discussed this with the Prophet (S) and said, “O Prophet of God! You let Ali (a.s.) remain but forced us out?” The Prophet (S) answered, “It was not I who dismissed you all except for Ali. It was the Honorable the Exalted God who did that.” This is a clear explanation of what the Prophet (S) said to Ali (a.s.), “Your position relative to me is the same as Aaron’s position relative to Moses.”

The scholars asked, “What is the relation between this and the Quran?” Abul Hassan (a.s.) said, “I will present proof for this from the Quran and will recite it to you.” They said, “Present it.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “The Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘We inspired Moses and his brother with this Message: ‘Provide dwellings for your people in Egypt, make your dwellings into places of worship…’’18 This verse shows the relative position of Aaron (a.s.) to Moses (a.s.) and also the relative position of Ali (a.s.) to the Prophet of God (a.s.). Also the following saying of the Prophet of God (a.s.) is another clear proof, “Anyone who is in a state of major ritual impurity is not allowed to enter this mosque, except for Muhammad (a.s.) and the Members of his Holy Household.”

The scholars said, “O Abul Hassan! This explanation and evidence cannot be found anywhere but with you - Members of the Holy Household of God’s Prophet (S).”

The Imam (a.s.) said, “Who can deny this fact? God’s Prophet (S) said, “I am the city of knowledge, and Ali is its portal. Whoever wishes to gain knowledge should go through that portal.” Our clear explanation of the virtue, honor, and preference, being chosen and immaculate (regarding the Household of the Prophet (S)) cannot be denied by anyone except those who are obstinate. We praise the Honorable the Exalted God for this. This was the fourth.

The fifth verse regarding the choice is the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘And render to the kindred their due rights…’19 The Honorable the Omnipotent has made them especial by this characteristic and has chosen them over the nation. When this verse was revealed to the

لا يَسْبِقُهُمْ إِلَيْهِ خَلْقٌ، إِذْ جَعَلَ نَفْسَ عَلِيٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ كَنَفْسِهِ. فَهَذِهِ الثَّالِثَةُ.

وَأَمَّا الرَّابِعَةُ فَإِخْرَاجُهُ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ النَّاسَ مِنْ مَسْجِدِهِ مَا خَلا الْعِتْرَةَ حَتَّى تَكَلَّمَ النَّاسُ فِي ذَلِكَ وَتَكَلَّمَ الْعَبَّاسُ فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، تَرَكْتَ عَلِيّاً وَأَخْرَجْتَنَا؟ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَا أَنَا تَرَكْتُهُ وَأَخْرَجْتُكُمْ، وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ تَرَكَهُ وَأَخْرَجَكُمْ. وَفِي هَذَا تِبْيَانُ قَوْلِهِ لِعَلِيٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَنْتَ مِنِّي بِمَنْزِلَةِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَى.

قَالَتِ الْعُلَمَاءُ: وَأَيْنَ هَذَا مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ؟

قَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أُوجِدُكُمْ فِي ذَلِكَ قُرْآناً أَقْرَأُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ؟

قَالُوا: هَاتِ.

قَالَ: قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَأَوْحَيْنا إِلى‏ مُوسى‏ وَأَخِيهِ أَنْ تَبَوَّءا لِقَوْمِكُما بِمِصْرَ بُيُوتاً وَاجْعَلُوا بُيُوتَكُمْ قِبْلَةً)، فَفِي هَذِهِ الآْيَةِ مَنْزِلَةُ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَى، وَفِيهَا أَيْضاً مَنْزِلَةُ عَلِيٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ. وَمَعَ هَذَا دَلِيلٌ ظَاهِرٌ فِي قَوْلِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ حِينَ قَالَ: أَلا إِنَّ هَذَا الْمَسْجِدَ لا يَحِلُّ لِجُنُبٍ إِلاّ لُِمحَمَّدٍ وَآلِهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ.

قَالَتِ الْعُلَمَاءُ: يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ، هَذَا الشَّرْحُ وَهَذَا الْبَيَانُ لا يُوجَدُ إِلا عِنْدَكُمْ مَعْشَرَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ.

فَقَالَ: وَمَنْ يُنْكِرُ لَنَا ذَلِكَ؟ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ يَقُولُ: أَنَا مَدِينَةُ الْحِكْمَة وَعَلِيٌ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بَابُهَا؛ فَمَنْ أَرَادَ الْمَدِينَةَ فَلْيَأْتِهَا مِنْ بَابِهَا. فَفِي ما أَوْضَحْنَا وَشَرَحْنَا مِنَ الْفَضْلِ وَالشَّرَفِ وَالتَّقْدِمَةِ وَالاصْطِفَاءِ وَالطَّهَارَةِ مَا لا يُنْكِرُهُ مُعَانِدٌ. وَلِلَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْحَمْدُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ. فَهَذِهِ الرَّابِعَةُ.

وَالآْيَةُ الْخَامِسَةُ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَآتِ ذَا الْقُرْبى‏ حَقَّهُ)؛ خُصُوصِيَّةٌ خَصَّهُمُ اللَّهُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ بِهَا وَاصْطَفَاهُمْ عَلَى الأُمَّةِ. فَلَمَّا نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الآْيَةُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْــهِ

Prophet (S), he summoned his daughter (the Blessed Lady) Fatima (a.s.). Fatima (a.s.) said, “O Prophet of God! Yes.” The Prophet (S) said, “Fadak is one of the territories that we did not exhaust our horses or camels to seize. Therefore, it is exclusively mine and not the Muslims20. Now, I will donate it to you and your offspring as a gift according to God’s instructions.” This was the fifth.

The sixth verse regarding the choice is the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin.’21 This is a special peculiarity of the Prophet (S) and his family up until the Resurrection Day, and that of no other family.

That is because the Honorable the Exalted God said the following regarding Noah in His Book, ‘And O my people! I ask you for no wealth in return: my reward is from none but Allah. But I will not drive away (in contempt) those who believe: for verily they are to meet their Lord, and ye I see are the ignorant ones!’22

And the Honorable the Exalted God said that the Prophet Hud said, “O my people! I ask of you no reward for this (Message). My reward is from none but Him who created me: Will ye not then understand?”23

However, the Honorable the Exalted God told His Prophet Muhammad (S), “O Muhammad! ‘Say, No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin.’”24 God made the love of the Prophet’s family incumbent upon others only because He knows that they will never turn back from the religion and they will never deviate.

A man may bear some malice in his heart for even his most intimate friend if his friend is an opponent of a member of his family. On that account, God wants to make the Prophet’s heart completely free of malice against the believers. Therefore, He ordered them to love the Prophet’s family. The Prophet (S) will then not hate anybody who loves him and his family. In the same manner, the Prophet (S) will hate those who dislike his family, because they have ignored one of the duties made incumbent upon them by God. This is surely the most prominent honor.

When the verse ’Say, No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin’ was revealed, the Prophet (S) stood up, expressed praise and gratitude for God and glorified Him. The Prophet (S) then said, “O people! The Honorable the Exalted God has made an affair

وَآلِهِ قَالَ: ادْعُوا لِي فَاطِمَةَ. فَدُعِيَتْ لَهُ، فَقَالَ: يَا فَاطِمَةُ. قَالَتْ: لَبَّيْكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ. فَقَالَ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: هَذِهِ فَدَكُ هِيَ مِمَّا لَمْ يُوجَفْ عَلَيْهِ بِخَيْلٍ وَلا رِكَابٍ، وَهِيَ لِي خَاصَّةً دُونَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ، وَقَدْ جَعَلْتُهَا لَكِ لِمَا أَمَرَنِيَ اللَّهُ بِهِ، فَخُذِيْهَا لَكِ وَلِوُلْدِكِ. فَهَذِهِ الْخَامِسَةُ.

وَالآْيَةُ السَّادِسَةُ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (قُلْ لا أَسْئَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً إِلا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبى).‏ وَهَذِهِ خُصُوصِيَّةٌ لِلنَّبِيِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَخُصُوصِيَّةٌ لِلآْلِ دُونَ غَيْرِهِمْ، وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَكَى فِي ذِكْرِ نُوحٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي كِتَابِهِ: (يا قَوْمِ لا أَسْئَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ مالاً إِنْ أَجرِيَ إِلا عَلَى اللَّهِ وَما أَنَا بِطارِدِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّهُمْ مُلاقُو رَبِّهِمْ وَلكِنِّي أَراكُمْ قَوْماً تَجْهَلُونَ). وَحَكَى عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَنْ هُودٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: (لا أَسْئَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً إِنْ أَجْرِيَ إِلا عَلَى الَّذِي فَطَرَنِي أَفَلا تَعْقِلُونَ). وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِنَبِيِّهِ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: (قُلْ) يَا مُحَمَّدُ (لا أَسْئَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً إِلا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبى)،‏ وَلَمْ يَفْرِضِ اللَّهُ مَوَدَّتَهُمْ إِلاّ وَقَدْ عَلِمَ أَنَّهُمْ لا يَرْتَدُّونَ عَنِ الدِّينِ أَبَداً وَلا يَرْجِعُونَ إِلَى ضَلالٍ أَبَداً. وَأُخْرَى أَنْ يَكُونَ الرَّجُلُ وَادّاً لِلرَّجُلِ فَيَكُونُ بَعْضُ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ عَدُوّاً لَهُ، فَلا يَسْلَمُ لَهُ قَلْبُ الرَّجُلِ، فَأَحَبَّ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْ لا يَكُونَ فِي قَلْبِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ شَيْ‏ءٌ، فَفَرَضَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مَوَدَّةَ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَى، فَمَنْ أَخَذَ بِهَا وَأَحَبَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَأَحَبَّ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَنْ يُبْغِضَهُ، وَمَنْ تَرَكَهَا وَلَمْ يَأْخُذْ بِهَا وَأَبْغَضَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ فَعَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَنْ يُبْغِضَهُ، لأنَّهُ قَدْ تَرَكَ فَرِيضَةً مِنْ فَرَائِضِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ. فَأَيُّ فَضِيلَةٍ وَأَيُّ شَرَفٍ يَتَقَدَّمُ هَذَا أَوْ يُدَانِيهِ! فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ هَذِهِ الآْيَةَ عَلَى نَبِيِّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: (قُلْ لا أَسْئَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً إِلا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبى)‏ فَقَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ فِي أَصْحَابِهِ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ وَقَالَ: أَيُّهَــا

incumbent upon you. Will you carry it out?” No one answered him. He (a.s.) said, “O people! That is not gold, silver, edible or drinkable!” Then they said, “Fine! What is it then?” The Prophet (S) recited this verse for them.” They said, “We accept this.” However, most of them did not act upon that promise.”

The Honorable the Exalted God has revealed to all the Prophets that they should not ask the people for any wages. The Honorable the Exalted God has Himself fully paid the wages of the Prophets. However, in the case of Muhammad (a.s.), the Honorable the Exalted God has made obeying him and loving his family incumbent upon his nation. God has ordered Muhammad to establish his wage as love for his family. This is only realized through recognizing their nobility which the Honorable the Exalted God has established for them, since loving them is only possible to the extent that we get to know their nobility. When the Sublime God made this love incumbent upon them it was difficult for the people. That is because it is difficult to have to obey. Some of the people who had made a covenant with God remained steadfast to their covenant. However, the hypocrites, the ones who breach and the obstinate ones were stubborn and resisted this. They disbelieved in this respect and went beyond the bounds set up by the Honorable the Exalted God and said, “What is meant by family is the whole of the Arabs and all of those who are invited by him (a.s.). Anyways we know that the love for the family is a must. The closer we are to the Prophet (S) the love should be more.” They did not justly deal with God’s Prophet (S) regarding the love for his family with which God had honored his nation - an honor which cannot be sufficiently described in words. They did not adhere to that love for the Prophet’s children and his family. They did not consider their position among themselves to be like the position of the eye on the head. This would have been honoring the Prophet of God and a sign of love for him (a.s.). How? The Quran speaks about this and calls us to it. The traditions about the fact that they are the ones to be loved and that they are the same people whose love has been made incumbent upon us by God the Highest are certainly undeniable. However, no one adhered to his promise. Whoever faithfully and sincerely expresses this love will deserve to go to Paradise since the Honorable the Exalted God has said the following, ‘…But those who believe and work righteous deeds will be in the luxuriant meadows of the Gardens: they shall have, before their

النَّاسُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قَدْ فَرَضَ لِي عَلَيْكُمْ فَرْضاً فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُؤَدُّوهُ؟ فَلَمْ يُجِبْهُ أَحَدٌ. فَقَالَ: أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِذَهَبٍ وَلا فِضَّةٍ وَلا مَأْكُولٍ وَلا مَشْرُوبٍ. فَقَالُوا: هَاتِ إِذاً. فَتَلا عَلَيْهِمْ هَذِهِ الآْيَةَ. فَقَالُوا: أَمَّا هَذَا فَنَعَمْ. فَمَا وَفَى بِهَا أَكْثَرُهُمْ. وَمَا بَعَثَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ نَبِيّاً إِلاّ أَوْحَى إِلَيْهِ أَنْ لا يَسْأَلَ قَوْمَهُ أَجْراً، لأنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يُوَفِّيهِ أَجْرَ الأَنْبِيَاءِ. وَمُحَمَّدٌ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَرَضَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مَوَدَّةَ قَرَابَتِهِ عَلَى أُمَّتِهِ وَأَمَرَهُ أَنْ يَجْعَلَ أَجْرَهُ فِيهِمْ لِيَوَدُّوهُ فِي قَرَابَتِهِ بِمَعْرِفَةِ فَضْلِهِمُ الَّذِي أَوْجَبَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَهُمْ، فَإِنَّ الْمَوَدَّةَ إِنَّمَا تَكُونُ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَعْرِفَةِ الْفَضْلِ. فَلَمَّا أَوْجَبَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ذَلِكَ ثَقُلَ لِثِقَلِ وُجُوبِ الطَّاعَةِ، فَتَمَسَّكَ بِهَا قَوْمٌ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَهُمْ عَلَى الْوَفَاءِ، وَعَانَدَ أَهْلُ الشِّقَاقِ وَالنِّفَاقِ وَأَلْحَدُوا فِي ذَلِكَ، فَصَرَفُوهُ عَنْ حَدِّهِ الَّذِي حَدَّهُ اللَّهُ، فَقَالُوا:

الْقَرَابَةُ هُمُ الْعَرَبُ كُلُّهَا وَأَهْلُ دَعْوَتِهِ! فَعَلَى أَيِّ الْحَالَتَيْنِ كَانَ فَقَدْ عَلِمْنَا أَنَّ الْمَوَدَّةَ هِيَ لِلْقَرَابَةِ، فَأَقْرَبُهُمْ مِنَ النَّبِيِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَوْلاهُمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ، وَكُلَّمَا قَرُبَتِ الْقَرَابَةُ كَانَتِ الْمَوَدَّةُ عَلَى قَدْرِهَا، وَمَا أَنْصَفُوا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ فِي حِيطَتِهِ وَرَأْفَتِهِ وَمَا مَنَّ اللَّهُ بِهِ عَلَى أُمَّتِهِ مِمَّا تَعْجِزُ الأَلْسُنُ عَنْ وَصْفِ الشُّكْرِ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ لا يُؤَدُّوهُ فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِ وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ وَأَنْ لا يَجْعَلُوهُمْ فِيهِمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْعَيْنِ مِنَ الرَّأْسِ حِفْظاً لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِيهِمْ وَحُبّاً لَهُ. فَكَيْفَ وَالْقُرْآنُ يَنْطِقُ بِهِ وَيَدْعُو إِلَيْهِ، وَالأَخْبَارُ ثَابِتَةٌ بِأَنَّهُمْ أَهْلُ الْمَوَدَّةِ وَالَّذِينَ فَرَضَ اللَّهُ مَوَدَّتَهُمْ وَوَعَدَ الْجَزَاءَ عَلَيْهَا. فَمَا وَفَى أَحَدٌ بِهَا، فَهَذِهِ الْمَوَدَّةُ لا يَأْتِي بِهَا أَحَدٌ مُؤْمِناً مُخْلِصاً إِلاّ اسْتَوْجَبَ الْجَنَّةَ، لِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي هَذِهِ الآْيَةِ: (وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحاتِ فِي رَوْضاتِ الْجَنَّاتِ لَهُمْ ما يَشاؤُنَ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ ذلِــــــــــكَ

Lord, all that they wish for. That will indeed be the magnificent Bounty (of Allah). That is (the Bounty) whereof Allah gives Glad Tidings to His Servants who believe and do righteous deeds. Say, ‘No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin.’’25 The top part and the latter parts of this verse clarify these points.

Then Abul Hassan said, “My father related to me his fathers’ relation that Al-Husayn bin Ali (a.s.) had narrated in the following:

The Immigrants (Muhajireen) and the Helpers (Ansar) came to the Prophet (S) and said, “O Prophet of God! You may have difficulty regarding your expenses and the expenses related to the delegations which come to visit you. Please take possession of our wealth, estates and souls and keep them, bestow them on others or spend them as you please.” Then the Honorable the Exalted God sent the Faithful Spirit (i.e. the Angel Gabriel) to convey to the Prophet His saying, (O Muhammad!) ‘Say, No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin.’ 26 This means that you should not hurt my relatives after my death.

As they left, the hypocrites said, “He rejected our offers only to urge us to accept (the leadership of) his relatives after his death. This was surely something he himself invented in that session. They also said horrible things that made God reveal this verse, ‘Or do they say, “He has forged it”? Say, “Had I forged it, then can ye obtain no single (blessing) for me from Allah. He knows best of that whereof ye talk (a.s.o glibly)! Enough is He for a witness between me and you! And he is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.’27

Accordingly, the Prophet (S) summoned them and wondered whether they had done something due to which the verse was revealed. They confessed that they had said horrible things. When the Prophet (S) recited the verse before them, they wept loudly.

Hence, the Honorable the Exalted God revealed, ‘He is the One that accepts repentance from His Servants and forgives sins: and He knows all that ye do.’28 And that was the sixth.

The seventh verse of the choice is the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe! Send ye blessings on him, and salute him with all respect.29

هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ ذلِكَ الَّذِي يُبَشِّرُ اللَّهُ عِبادَهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحاتِ قُلْ لا أَسْئَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً إِلا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبى)‏ مُفَسَّراً وَمُبَيَّناً.

ثُمَّ قَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عَنْ جَدِّي، عَن آبَائِهِ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: إجْتَمَعَ الْمُهَاجِرُونَ وَالأَنْصَارُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقَالُوا: إِنَّ لَكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَئُونَةً فِي نَفَقَتِكَ وَفِي مَنْ يَأْتِيكَ مِنَ الْوُفُودِ، وَهَذِهِ أَمْوَالُنَا مَعَ دِمَائِنَا، فَاحْكُمْ فِيهَا بَارّاً مَأْجُوراً. أَعْطِ مَا شِئْتَ وَأَمْسِكْ مَا شِئْتَ مِنْ غَيْرِ حَرَجٍ.

قَالَ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهِ الرُّوحَ الأَمِينَ فَقَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ (قُلْ لا أَسْئَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً إِلا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبى)‏ يَعْنِي أَنْ تَوَدُّوا قَرَابَتِي مِنْ بَعْدِي، فَخَرَجُوا. فَقَالَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ: مَا حَمَلَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ عَلَى تَرْكِ مَا عَرَضْنَا عَلَيْهِ إِلاّ لِيَحُثَّنَا عَلَى قَرَابَتِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ. إِنْ هُوَ إِلاّ شَيْ‏ءٌ افْتَرَاهُ فِي مَجْلِسِهِ! وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ قَوْلِهِمْ عَظِيماً، فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ هَذِهِ الآْيَةَ: (أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا فَإِنْ يَشَأْ اللَّهُ يَخْتِمْ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ وَيَمْحُ اللَّهُ الْبَاطِلَ وَيُحِقُّ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ).

وَأَنْزَلَ (أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَراهُ قُلْ إِنِ افْتَرَيْتُهُ فَلا تَمْلِكُونَ لِي مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئاً هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِما تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ كَفى‏ بِهِ شَهِيداً بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَهُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ). فَبَعَثَ إِلَيْهِمُ النَّبِيُ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقَالَ: هَلْ مِنْ حَدَثٍ؟ فَقَالُوا: إِي وَاللَّهِ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ! لَقَدْ قَالَ بَعْضُنَا كَلاماً غَلِيظاً كَرِهْنَاهُ. فَتَلا عَلَيْهِمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ الآْيَةَ، فَبَكَوْا وَاشْتَدَّ بُكَاؤُهُمْ، فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَقْبَلُ التَّوْبَةَ عَنْ عِبادِهِ وَيَعْفُوا عَنِ السَّيِّئاتِ وَيَعْلَمُ ما تَفْعَلُونَ). فَهَذِهِ السَّادِسَةُ.

وَأَمَّا الآْيَةُ السَّابِعَةُ فَقَوْلُ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى: (إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيماً).

Some of the people said, “O Prophet of God! We know how to greet you but how should we send blessings upon you.” The Prophet (S) said, “Say, O my God! Bless Muhammad and Muhammad’s family in the same way that You blessed Abraham and Abraham’s family. You are surely Praiseworthy and Glorious.”

“Can anyone of you disagree with this?” The scholars answered, “No.” Al-Ma’mun said, “This is what no one disagrees with and the whole nation agrees upon unanimously. However, we need something more evident about the Prophet’s family excerpted from the Quran.”

Abul Hassan (a.s.) said, “Fine. Let me know about the meaning of ‘Ya Sin’ when the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘Ya Sin. By the Qur'an, full of Wisdom. Thou art indeed one of the apostles on a Straight Way.’”30 The scholars said, “Undoubtedly ‘Ya Sin’ here refers to Muhammad (a.s.).”

Abul Hassan (a.s.) said, “In fact, the Honorable the Exalted God granted Muhammad and his family a nobility that no one can understand its true meaning except for one who really ponders over it. The Honorable the Exalted God has not blessed anyone but the Prophets (a.s.).

The Blessed the Sublime God said, ‘Peace and salutation to Noah among the nations!’31 He also said, ‘Peace and salutation to Abraham!’32 God also said, ‘Peace and salutation to Moses and Aaron!’33 However, God does not bless the family of Noah, Abraham or Moses. But He blesses Muhammad’s family.

And the Honorable the Exalted God said, “Peace and salutation to such as Elias!” - that is the Household of Muhammad (a.s.).”

Al-Ma’mun said, “I have realized that the expression and clarification of this is with the Treasurer of the Prophethood.” And this is the seventh.

And the eighth is that the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to Allah, and to the Messenger, and to near relatives…’34

In this verse, God has made the share of the Prophet’s family to be similar to His share as well as the share of His Messenger. This is the distinction between the Prophet’s family and the nation, whom God has situated in a place, and situated the Prophet’s family in another higher place. Besides, the Almighty God chose for the Prophet’s family what He

وَقَدْ عَلِمَ الْمُعَانِدُونَ مِنْهُمْ أَنَّهُ لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الآْيَةُ قِيلَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، قَدْ عَرَفْنَا التَّسْلِيمَ عَلَيْكَ، فَكَيْفَ الصَّلاةُ عَلَيْكَ؟ فَقَالَ: تَقُولُونَ "اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَآلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ." فَهَلْ بَيْنَكُمْ مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ فِي هَذَا خِلافٌ؟

قَالُوا: لا.

قَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ: هَذَا مَا لا خِلافَ فِيهِ أَصْلاً، وَعَلَيْهِ إِجْمَاعُ الأُمَّةِ، فَهَلْ عِنْدَكَ فِي الآْلِ شَيْ‏ءٌ أَوْضَحُ مِنْ هَذَا فِي الْقُرْآنِ؟

قَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: نَعَمْ. أَخْبِرُونِي عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (يس وَالْقُرْآنِ الْحَكِيمِ إِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ عَلى‏ صِراطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ). فَمَنْ عَنَى بِقَوْلِهِ يس؟

قَالَتِ الْعُلَمَاءُ: يس مُحَمَّدٌ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ. لَمْ يَشُكَّ فِيهِ أَحَدٌ.

قَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَعْطَى مُحَمَّداً وَآلَ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَضْلاً لا يَبْلُغُ أَحَدٌ كُنْهَ وَصْفِهِ إِلاّ مَنْ عَقَلَهُ، وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمْ يُسَلِّمْ عَلَى أَحَدٍ إِلاّ عَلَى الأَنْبِيَاءِ عَلَيْهِم السَّلامُ، فَقَالَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى: (سَلامٌ عَلى‏ نُوحٍ فِي الْعالَمِينَ) وَقَالَ: (سَلامٌ عَلى‏ إِبْراهِيمَ) وَقَالَ: (سَلامٌ عَلى‏ مُوسى‏ وَهارُونَ) وَلَمْ يَقُلْ سَلامٌ عَلَى آلِ نُوحٍ وَلَمْ يَقُلْ سَلامٌ عَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَلا قَالَ سَلامٌ عَلَى آلِ مُوسَى وَهَارُونَ. وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (سَلامٌ عَلَى آلِ يس) يَعْنِي آلَ مُحَمَّدٍ.

فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ: قَدْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ فِي مَعْدِنِ النُّبُوَّةِ شَرْحَ هَذَا وَبَيَانَهُ.

قَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: فَهَذِهِ السَّابِعَةُ. وَأَمَّا الثَّامِنَةُ فَقَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبى)‏ فَقَرَنَ سَهْمَ ذِي الْقُرْبَى مَعَ سَهْمِهِ بِسَهْمِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ. فَهَذَا فَصْلٌ أَيْضاً بَيْنَ الآْلِ وَالأُمَّةِ، لأنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ جَعَلَهُمْ فِي حَيِّزٍ وَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ فِي حَيِّزٍ دُونَ ذَلِكَ، وَرَضِيَ لَهُمْ مَا رَضِيَ لِنَفْسِهِ، وَاصْطَفَاهُمْ

chose for Himself. He chose a share of the booty for them. He begins with mentioning Himself, His Messenger, and then the kindred. This is operative not only in the distribution of the spoils of war, but also in everything that God accepts for Himself and for them. In this regard God said - and what God said is right, ‘And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to Allah, and to the Messenger, and to near relatives…’35

This holy saying is an affirmative declaration and an everlasting commandment for them all the way up until the Resurrection Day in the ever-speaking Book of God that says, ‘No falsehood can approach it from before or behind it: It is sent down by One Full of Wisdom, Worthy of all Praise.’36

And regarding His words, ‘…orphans, the needy…’37 it is natural that the share of the orphan should be stopped when their feature of orphanage ceases to exist. The same thing can be said about the share of the needy. While, on the other hand, the share of the Prophet’s kindred, whether they are needy or not, is incessant up until the Resurrection Day, because no one is wealthier than God or the Prophet. However, God has established a share for Himself and for His Prophet (S). Thus what He has liked for Himself, He has also liked for His Prophet (S).

The same holds true for booties (obtained without any bloodshed). What He has liked for Himself, and His Prophet (S), he has also liked for the Prophet’s kindred as God has given them a share in booties. Then God has started out with Himself- the Exalted the Magnificent - then His Messenger (a.s.), and then the kindred. God has equaled their share with that of God and God’s Prophet (S).

The same thing can be said about the commandment of obedience. (God the Exalted says,) ‘O ye who believe! Obey God, and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among you…’38 In the previous verse, God begins with Himself, His Messenger, and then His Messenger’s Household. The same thing occurs in the verse of Leadership. God says, ‘Your (real) friends are (no less than) Allah, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers,- those who establish regular prayers and regular charity, and they bow down humbly (in worship).’39 Thus God has made the Leadership of the Prophet’s family and the obedience to the Prophet related to the obedience to Him. Likewise, He makes His share

فِيهِ فَبَدَأَ بِنَفْسِهِ ثُمَّ ثَنَّى بِرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ بِذِي الْقُرْبَى فِي كُلِّ مَا كَانَ مِنَ الْفَيْ‏ءِ وَالْغَنِيمَةِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِمَّا رَضِيَهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِنَفْسِهِ فَرَضِيَهُ لَهُمْ، فَقَالَ وَقَوْلُهُ الْحَقُّ: (وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبى)‏ فَهَذَا تَأْكِيدٌ مُؤَكَّدٌ وَأَثَرٌ قَائِمٌ لَهُمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ النَّاطِقِ الَّذِي (لا يَأْتِيهِ الْباطِلُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلا مِنْ خَلْفِهِ تَنْزِيلٌ مِنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ).

وَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَالْيَتامى‏ وَالْمَساكِينِ) فَإِنَّ الْيَتِيمَ إِذَا انْقَطَعَ يُتْمُهُ خَرَجَ مِنَ الْغَنَائِمِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ فِيهَا نَصِيبٌ، وَكَذَلِكَ الْمِسْكِينُ إِذَا انْقَطَعَتْ مَسْكَنَتُهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ نَصِيبٌ مِنَ الْمَغْنَمِ وَلا يَحِلُّ لَهُ أَخْذُهُ. وَسَهْمُ ذِي الْقُرْبَى إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ قَائِمٌ فِيهِمْ لِلْغَنِيِّ وَالْفَقِيرِ مِنْهُمْ لأنَّهُ لا أَحَدَ أَغْنَى مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلا مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ، فَجَعَلَ لِنَفْسِهِ مِنْهَا سَهْماً وَلِرَسُولِهِ سَهْماً، فَمَا رَضِيَهُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَلِرَسُولِهِ ‏رَضِيَهُ لَهُمْ، وَكَذَلِكَ الْفَيْ‏ءُ مَا رَضِيَهُ مِنْهُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَلِنَبِيِّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ رَضِيَهُ لِذِي الْقُرْبَى كَمَا أَجْرَاهُمْ فِي الْغَنِيمَةِ فَبَدَأَ بِنَفْسِهِ جَلَّ جَلالُهُ ثُمَّ بِرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ بِهِمْ، وَقَرَنَ سَهْمَهُمْ بِسَهْمِ اللَّهِ وَسَهْمِ رَسُولِهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ، وَكَذَلِكَ فِي الطَّاعَةِ قَالَ: (يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ) فَبَدَأَ بِنَفْسِهِ ثُمَّ بِرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ بِأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ. وَكَذَلِكَ آيَةُ الْوَلايَةِ: (إِنَّما وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا) فَجَعَـلَ وَلايَتَهُمْ مَعَ طَـاعَةِ الرَّسُـولِ مَقْـرُونَةً بِطَـاعَتِهِ، كَمَا جَعَلَ سَهْمَهُمْ مَعَ سَهْمِ الرَّسُولِ

as well as His Messenger’s share of spoils of war connected to the shares of the Prophet’s family. All praise is due to God Who has given the Prophet’s family the greatest grace.

As God refers to the classes to whom the alms should be given, He deems Himself, His Messenger, and the Prophet’s family far above them. He the Exalted says, ‘Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer the (funds); for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to Truth); for those in bondage and in debt; in the cause of God; and for the wayfarer: (thus is it) ordained by God, and God is full of knowledge and wisdom.’40

You cannot find any reference to God, His Messenger, and the Prophet’s family in the above-mentioned classes. This is because God has deemed Himself, His Messenger, and the Messenger’s family far above receiving alms. Moreover, He has deemed it unlawful for Muhammad and his family to receive any of the alms, because alms are only the impurities of the people, and it is unlawful for the Prophet and his family to enjoy the impurities of the people, because they are purified against any impurities or uncleanliness. Finally, because God has purified and selected the Prophet’s family exclusively, He accepts for them only what He accepts for Himself and dislikes for them what He dislikes for Himself. This was the eighth.

The ninth verse of the choice is the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘… if ye realize this not, ask of those who possess the Message.’41 We - the Prophet’s family - are those who possess the Message.”

The scholars said, “In this verse God refers to the Christians and the Jews.” Abul Hassan (a.s.) said, “How is this acceptable? If it is so, then God is asking us to follow their religion, and they can claim that their religion is better than Islam!” Al-Ma’mun said, “O Abul Hassan! Do you have an explanation opposing what they say?”

Abul Hassan (a.s.) said, “Yes. The Message referred to in this verse is God’s Messenger. We are his family. This is clear in the Book of the Honorable the Exalted God in Chapter ‘At-Talaq, ‘…Therefore fear Allah, O ye men of understanding - who have believed!- for Allah hath indeed sent down to you a Message. A Messenger, who rehearses to you the Signs of Allah containing clear explanations…’42 Thus, the Message is God’s Messenger and we are his family. And that was the ninth.

مَقْرُوناً بِسَهْمِهِ فِي الْغَنِيمَةِ وَالْفَيْ‏ءِ. فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ وَتَعَالَى، مَا أَعْظَمَ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَى أَهْلِ هَذَا الْبَيْتِ.

فَلَمَّا جَاءَتْ قِصَّةُ الصَّدَقَةِ نَزَّهَ نَفْسَهُ وَنَزَّهَ رَسُولَهُ وَنَزَّهَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ فَقَالَ: (إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقاتُ لِلْفُقَراءِ وَالْمَساكِينِ وَالْعامِلِينَ عَلَيْها وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقابِ وَالْغارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ) فَهَلْ تَجِدُ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ سَمَّى لِنَفْسِهِ أَوْ لِرَسُولِهِ أَوْ لِذِي الْقُرْبَى؟ لأنَّهُ لَمَّا نَزَّهَ نَفْسَهُ عَنِ الصَّدَقَةِ وَنَزَّهَ رَسُولَهُ نَزَّهَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ، لا بَلْ حَرَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ، لأنَّ الصَّدَقَةَ مُحَرَّمَةٌ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِهِ، وَهِيَ أَوْسَاخُ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ، لا تَحِلُّ لَهُمْ لأنَّهُمْ طُهِّرُوا مِنْ كُلِّ دَنَسٍ وَوَسَخٍ، فَلَمَّا طَهَّرَهُمُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَاصْطَفَاهُمْ رَضِيَ لَهُمْ مَا رَضِيَ لِنَفْسِهِ وَكَرِهَ لَهُمْ مَا كَرِهَ لِنَفْسِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ. فَهَذِهِ الثَّامِنَةُ.

وَأَمَّا التَّاسِعَةُ، فَنَحْنُ أَهْلُ الذِّكْرِ الَّذِينَ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (فَسْئَلُوا أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ لا تَعْلَمُونَ) فَنَحْنُ أَهْلُ الذِّكْرِ فَاسْأَلُونَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ لا تَعْلَمُونَ.

فَقَالَتِ الْعُلَمَاءُ: إِنَّمَا عَنَى بِذَلِكَ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى.

فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ! وَهَلْ يَجُوزُ ذَلِكَ؟ إِذاً يَدْعُونَّا إِلَى دِينِهِمْ وَيَقُولُونَ إِنَّهُ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ دِينِ الإِسْلامِ!

فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ: فَهَلْ عِنْدَكَ فِي ذَلِكَ شَرْحٌ بِخِلافِ مَا قَالُوا يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ؟

فَقَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: نَعَمْ. الذِّكْرُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، وَنَحْنُ أَهْلُهُ، وَذَلِكَ بَيِّنٌ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَيْثُ يَقُولُ فِي سُورَةِ الطَّلاقِ: (فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ يا أُولِي الأَلْبابِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَدْ أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكُمْ ذِكْراً رَسُولاً يَتْلُوا عَلَيْكُمْ آياتِ اللَّهِ مُبَيِّناتٍ) فَالذِّكْرُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ، وَنَحْنُ أَهْلُهُ. فَهَذِهِ التَّاسِعَةُ.

The tenth verse of the choice is the Honorable the Exalted God’s words in verse about prohibition (‘Al-Tahrim) from the Quranic Chapter ‘Al-Nisaa, ‘Prohibited to you (for marriage) are: your mothers, daughters, sisters…’43 Then tell me, would my daughter, the daughter of my son, or other daughters from my progeny be permitted for marriage to the Prophet of God (a.s.) had he been alive now?” They replied, “No.” Imam Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) said, “Would your daughters be permitted for marriage to the Prophet of God had he been alive now?” They said, “Yes.” Then the Imam (a.s.) said, “This itself is the proof that I am from his Household and you are not, since if you were of his Household, then your daughters would have been forbidden for marriage to the Prophet (S) just as mine are. This is because I am from his Household but you are from his nation. This is another difference between his family and his nation since the family is a part of the Prophet (S), while the nation’s members are not unless they are his family. And this was the tenth.

The eleventh verse of the choice is the Honorable the Exalted God’s words in Chapter ‘Al-Mu’min from a believing person from the family of Pharaoh, ‘A believer, a man from among the people of Pharaoh, who had concealed his faith, said, “Will ye slay a man because he says, 'My Lord is Allah.?- when he has indeed come to you with Clear (a.s.igns) from your Lord?…’44 That man was the maternal cousin of Pharaoh. Therefore, due to this relationship God relates him to Pharaoh, not due to his religion. The same thing can be said about us. We are the Prophet’s Household because we are his family. We have the same religion as others do. This is another distinction between the Prophet’s family and the nation.

The twelfth verse of the choice is the Honorable the Exalted God’s words, ‘Enjoin prayer on thy people, and be constant therein…’45 Thus the Blessed the Sublime God has especially chosen us (the Members of the Prophets Household) and has ordered us to establish prayers along with the nation. Then God has granted to us (the Prophet’s Household) this especial characteristic. After this verse was revealed the Prophet of God (a.s.) went to the house of Ali (a.s.) and (the Blessed Lady) Fatima (a.s.) five times each day at prayer times for a period of nine months and said, ‘(It is time for) prayer. God’s Mercy be upon you.’”

Al-Ridha’ (a.s.) continued, “God has not bestowed upon the progeny of any of the Prophets an honored virtue like that which He has exclusively

وَأَمَّا الْعَاشِرَةُ، فَقَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي آيَةِ التَّحْرِيمِ: (حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهاتُكُمْ وَبَناتُكُمْ وَأَخَواتُكُمْ…) فَأَخْبِرُونِي هَلْ تَصْلُحُ ابْنَتِي أَوْ ابْنَةُ ابْنِي وَمَا تَنَاسَلَ مِنْ صُلْبِي لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَهَا لَوْ كَانَ حَيّاً؟

قَالُوا: لا.

قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرُونِي هَلْ كَانَتِ ابْنَةُ أَحَدِكُمْ يَصْلُحُ لَهُ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَهَا لَوْ كَانَ حَيّاً؟

قَالُوا: نَعَمْ.

قَالَ: فَفِي هَذَا بَيَانٌ، لأنِّي أَنَا مِنْ آلِهِ وَلَسْتُمْ مِنْ آلِهِ، وَلَوْ كُنْتُمْ مِنْ آلِهِ لَحَرُمَ عَلَيْهِ بَنَاتُكُمْ كَمَا حَرُمَ عَلَيْهِ بَنَاتِي، لأنَّا مِنْ آلِهِ وَأَنْتُمْ مِنْ أُمَّتِهِ. فَهَذَا فَرْقٌ بَيْنَ الآْلِ وَالأُمَّةِ لأنَّ الآْلَ مِنْهُ وَالأُمَّةَ إِذَا لَمْ تَكُنْ مِنَ الآْلِ لَيْسَتْ مِنْهُ. فَهَذِهِ الْعَاشِرَةُ.

وَأَمَّا الْحَادِيَ عَشَرَ فَقَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي سُورَةِ الْمُؤْمِنِ حِكَايَةً عَنْ رَجُلٍ مِنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ: (وَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مُؤْمِنٌ مِنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَكْتُمُ إِيمَانَهُ أَتَقْتُلُونَ رَجُلًا أَنْ يَقُولَ رَبِّي اللَّهُ وَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَإِنْ يَكُ كَاذِبًا فَعَلَيْهِ كَذِبُهُ وَإِنْ يَكُ صَادِقًا يُصِبْكُمْ بَعْضُ الَّذِي يَعِدُكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ هُوَ مُسْرِفٌ كَذَّابٌ). فَكَانَ ابْنَ خَالِ فِرْعَوْنَ، فَنَسَبَهُ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ بِنَسَبِهِ وَلَمْ يُضِفْهُ إِلَيْهِ بِدِينِهِ، وَكَذَلِكَ خُصِّصْنَا نَحْنُ إِذْ كُنَّا مِنْ آلِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ بِوِلادَتِنَا مِنْهُ، وَعَمَّمَنَا النَّاسُ بِالدِّينِ، فَهَذَا فَرْقُ مَا بَيْنَ الآْلِ وَالأُمَّةِ. فَهَذِهِ الْحَادِيَ عَشَرَ.

وَأَمَّا الثَّانِيَ عَشَرَ، فَقَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: (وَأْمُرْ أَهْلَكَ بِالصَّلاةِ وَاصْطَبِرْ عَلَيْها) فَخَصَّنَا اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهَذِهِ الْخُصُوصِيَّةِ إِذْ أَمَرَنَا مَعَ الأُمَّةِ بِإِقَامَةِ الصَّلاةِ، ثُمَّ خَصَّنَا مِنْ دُونِ الأُمَّةِ، فَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ يَجِي‏ءُ إِلَى بَابِ عَلِيٍّ وَفَاطِمَةَ عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ بَعْدَ نُزُولِ هَذِهِ الآْيَةِ تِسْعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ عِنْدَ حُضُورِ كُلِّ صَلاةٍ خَمْسَ مَرَّاتٍ فَيَقُولُ: الصَّلاةَ رَحِمَكُمُ اللَّهُ. وَمَا أَكْرَمَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَحَداً مِنْ ذَرَارِيِّ الأَنْبِيَاءِ بِمِثْلِ هَذِهِ الْكَرَامَةِ الَّتِي أَكْرَمَنَا بِهَا وَخَصَّنَا مِنْ

given to us. God has made us distinct among the members of the Households of all of the Prophets.”

Al-Ma’mun and the scholars said, “May God reward you - Members of the Holy Household of the Prophet (S) on behalf of this nation. We have nothing else but what you present regarding that about which we have doubt.”

  • 1. Qur’an, 35:32
  • 2. Ibid.
  • 3. Ibid.
  • 4. Qur’an, 33:33
  • 5. Qur’an, 57:26
  • 6. Qur’an, 11:45
  • 7. Qur’an, 11:46
  • 8. Qur’an, 3:33-34
  • 9. Qur’an, 4:59
  • 10. Qur’an, 4:59
  • 11. Ibid.
  • 12. Qur’an, 26:214
  • 13. Muslims in general and Shias in particular believe that the Quran is only what is between the two covers of the current copies of the Holy Quran without any addition or imperfection. However, this point was a matter of disagreement and exchangeable accusation among the different sects of Muslims, because of many reasons some of which is the existence of many reports and narratives claiming the distortion of the Quran in addition to the existence of a number of different copies of the Holy Quran each being referred to belong to one of the Prophet’s companions, such as Ubay bin Ka’b, Abdullah bin Mas’ud and others. Anyhow, when a statement is reported to have been added to a Quranic verse, this means that the statement is only an explanation of the verse, not a part of it, but was deleted or distorted.
  • 14. When Othman (bin Affan) ordered Zayd bin Thabit to compile the Quran, he bypassed that statement.
  • 15. Qur’an, 33:33
  • 16. Qur’an, 3:61
  • 17. The Prophet’s companions whose houses were encompassing the Prophet’s Mosque opened doors from their houses to the Mosque. They were passing by the Mosque while they were ceremonially impure. The Prophet therefore ordered them to close all these doors except the door that leads to Ali bin Abi Talib’s house. This is the meaning of dismissing all people out of the Mosque except Ali (peace be upon him).
    Another point is that when this happened, Al-Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle, was still living in Mecca. Hence, it was another person who discussed the Prophet in this question.
  • 18. Qur’an, 10:87
  • 19. Qur’an, 17:26
  • 20. This is an indication to God’s saying –in Sura of Al-Hashr (59) Verse (6):
    “Since you did not have to exhaust your horses and camels or (even fight), God granted to His Messenger their property. God gives authority to His Messenger over whomever He wants. God has power over all things.”
  • 21. Qur’an, 42:23
  • 22. Qur’an, 11:29
  • 23. Qur’an, 11:51
  • 24. Qur’an, 42:23
  • 25. Qur’an, 42:22-23
  • 26. Qur’an, 42:23
  • 27. Qur’an, 46:8
  • 28. Qur’an, 42:25
  • 29. Qur’an, 33:56
  • 30. Qur’an, -Sin 36:1-4
  • 31. Qur’an, 37:79
  • 32. Qur’an, 37:109
  • 33. Qur’an, 37:120
  • 34. Qur’an, 8:41
  • 35. Qur’an, 8:41
  • 36. Qur’an, 41:42
  • 37. Qur’an, 8:41
  • 38. Qur’an, 4:59
  • 39. Qur’an, 5:55
  • 40. Qur’an, 9:60
  • 41. Qur’an, 16:43
  • 42. Qur’an, 65:10-11
  • 43. Qur’an, 4:23
  • 44. Qur’an, 40:28
  • 45. Qur’an, 20:132