A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species. In humans, a parent is the caretaker of a child (where "child" refers to offspring, not necessarily age). A biological parent is a person whose gamete resulted in a child, a male through the sperm, and a female through the ovum.
It compulsory to compensate such behaviour to be sure to avoid the bad results of it in this life and hereafter. Bad deeds must be countered by very good deeds as we read in Quran ( Surely, good deeds remove away the bad deeds)( Sura Hood;114).
1. If your parents are alive, you must serve them with out letting them ask you and fulfill their needs and wishes as much as you can to make them really feel that you are compensating your misbehaviour.
2. If they are not alive, you must do maximum good deeds and gift it to them like getting their religious debts performed e.g. missed prayers, fast, Khums, Hajj or any other debt they had. Above that to give Charity on their behalf or recite Quran or Du'a, Majlis, Ziyarat, Hajj and Umra.
3. Visiting them if they are alive or their graves as it is like visiting them and it makes them happy.
4. Praying for them every day and night especially during and after all your prayers.
Booking driving lesson or anything of this sort is not at all a valid excuse for missing out on your wajib prayers. Your parents should have arranged it in such a way where you can pray, and the duty of parents is to teach their children to always prioritise prayer.
Yes, if you will be late for prayers, and will still be able to pray within the time frame for prayer, that would be permissible, although its always best to pray on time. So, it would be ok for you to go to the driving class, as long as you have time to pray.
However, if you will not have enough time, then it will be impermissible and haram.
And Allah knows best.
You must always treat your parents in the best possible way of treatment and look after them and serve them to make them always happy with you. If they ask something which out of your ability, try to explain to them, but never hurt their feelings.
Such statement can be because of anger and he might repent later. He should be asked again when his daughter is about to get married. If he says then that he is not concerned, then his father ( her paternal grand father) should be asked. If he is not alive or not available, then she can decide her marriage by herself.
Nothing wrong in wishing to work as a doctor especially when thousands of our females need female doctors to treat them. Even if you get married after medical graduation, you can work as a doctor and there is no contradiction between marriage and working as far as you organise it with your husband.
Mistreating any of the parents is very dangerous and it is a major sin which leads the sinner to hellfire beside causing misery in his life in this world. Parents need to study the reasons of this misbehaviour and try their best to make their children understand what is right and what is wrong. One of the possible reasons can be bad friends or watching bad films etc.
It is really a big challenge for the parents and they need to take advice from specialists beside seeking help from Allah (SWT).
It is not enough to just phone your parents but you must visit them and serve them in every possible way. Their sins are between them and Allah and do not change your responsibilities towards them even if they are non Muslims.
There is no Kaffara on non Baligh child, but if his parents wish to pay a Kaffara, they can do so but it is not obligatory neither on them nor on the child.
If you need to get married to save yourself from sinful acts or temptations , you should try every thing possible to get married. Your parents should be told about your need either directly by you (very politely), or by persons whom they respect and trust from your family or friends.
Temporary marriage is another way to save yourself from sinning but you should be sure that it is according to the rules of Sharia. Permission of your parents is not compulsory if you are a male.
Meanwhile, it is advised to fast as many days as you can as it is mentioned in the Prophetic advice for the unmarried youth as a protection from sexual temptations.
Wife's parents have no right to ask for divorce of their daughter with out real Islamic reason. You and your wife should co-operate to convince them not to break your family or you can seek help from respected persons known to them to speak to them,
Main thing is to sort things between you and your wife between you and her with out interference from any one else.
Virgin girl does need her father's permission for her marriage if her father is a Muslim and does not reject the marriage for un Islamic reasons. Your father does not need to attend your Nikah but he must agree on it if it is your first marriage.
There are certain cases when this condition becomes void like when you need the marriage to save yourself from sinful act, and your father is refusing the marriage for reasons which are invalid in Islam.
You have your right to study what suits your planing for your future according to your consideration, but you should never hurt the feelings of your parents. You should be very polite with them and try to explain to them your opinion. You can do that either by directly speaking to them or through persons who are respected by them who can explain to them that forcing you to study what you don't like might be harmful for your future. I propose that what you want to study against the wish of your parents does not go against any religious rule.