A woman is a female human being. The word woman is usually reserved for an adult, with girl being the usual term for a female child or adolescent.
Her husband’s brother is non-Mahram to her and staying in one house with a non Mahram with or without an infant child should be avoided. Her husband should make proper arrangement for her safe stay away from non Mahram.
Woman can go out with out Mahram as far as she is safe. Permission of her husband is required when her going out might contradict her duties as a wife.
Yes, as far as she observes full Hijab. Lady Fatima (AS) has spoken in the Masjid Nabawi in front of men and women.
I guess this is a politically related question, but, in any case, there is no evidence that the Prophet (S) forced women to dress a certain way, he only advised.
If the woman puts a condition on the marriage contract that her husband should not have another wife during he is married to her, and the husband agrees on such condition, then it becomes binding on the husband to fulfill this condition which is part of the marriage contract.
Female doctor or medical student is not allowed to touch a male patient unless in emergency.
Yes. Responding to the Salam is obligatory, although offering the Salam is recommended but it is not recommended for men to offer Salam to non Mahram females.
No. It is not permissible to display or sell a picture of a female exposing her hair and with make up on her face.
Such picture will promote wrong attitude against women which is used by the sinners who look at the female a source of sexual amusement. Woman is much higher and more noble than to be used as a piece of artwork.
If fasting harms her health or the health of her embryo, she is then not allowed to fast.
It is highly recommended for both men and women to recite Adhan and Iqamah, especially if they are praying on their own, and not in jama'ah.
Of course, the difference is that a female should recite in a low voice in the presence of a non-mahram. As for performing jama'ah prayers, of course a female can do loud Adhan and a female can lead jama'ah prayers if they are all women.
And Allah knows best
In general, Islam prohibits abortion, and this is the primary law, considering abortion unlawful and a form of murder, where blood-money must be paid and a kaffarah.
In brief, there are certain circumstances where abortion becomes allowed. In the case of a rape incident, with the victim falling pregnant, before the fourth month (entering of the soul into the fetus), she is allowed to abort the fetus if there is extreme difficulty upon her to keep the baby. This means her mental state as the mother is unstable, her family and social status will be ruined, and she will not be able to bear the extremely damaging consequences of all of this. In this case, she is permitted to have an abortion.
As for after the fourth month, there are different opinions on this, and she must refer to her Marja' taqleed for the fatwa.
And Allah knows best.
If you do not have a physical injury or a handicap that would prevent you from observing the correct form of prayer, which is standing up, then you are not allowed to pray sitting down.
Whatever the environment may be, you must be able to take breaks, in which you can find an empty space to pray in. If the situation is very bad, then you must think of leaving that toxic environment so you are able to express your religious freedom and do you wajibaat in the correct form.
And Allah knows best