Ḥadīth (حديث ḥadīth, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث, ʼaḥādīth, also "Traditions") in Islam are the record of the words, actions, and silent approval, traditionally attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran.
Knowledge and degrees of faith are open for women equally as open for men. Many women are much higher in knowledge and faith than thousands of men. Allah (SWT) Created Fatima (AS) who is higher in her knowledge and faith than all human beings except her father and her husband (SAWA). That proves that there is no gender discrimination at all in Islam.
There are references that when the holy Prophet (s.a.w.) went in his Mi'raj journey, Allah ta'ala communicated with the Prophet (s.a.w.), in the voice of Imam Ali (a.s.). This is among the merits of Imam Ali (a.s.).
Of course, in Sunni sources, like al-Durr al-Manthur, v. 4, p. 154-5, it says the Prophet (s.a.w.) heard the voice of Abu Bakr.
But Sunni sources also narrate it being Imam Ali (a.s.).
We have absolute belief that Allah ta'ala does not have a body, or anything material, and even in this case of "communicating", it was casting the sound.
So, the voice was not Imam Ali (a.s.), but the casting of a sound to an angel that resembled the voice of Imam Ali (a.s.), because it was the most loved of sounds for the Prophet (s.a.w.).
Some Sunni references for this narration:
al-Manaqib, by al-Khwarazmi, p. 78, p. 6, h. 61.
Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, v. 1, p. 246, h. 28.
With prayers for your success
Such narrations are not to be taken for granted and most of our great scholars did not follow it in their verdicts. It might be talking about a specific year and can not be taken for all the years.
Prior to anything, we must first establish whether the narration is authentic, as far as the text and the chain as well.
If we were to assume it's all good as far as its issuance from a Ma'sum (a.s.), then we most certainly cannot take it in its literal meaning, and it must be interpreted in such a way that would make sense. Whale could refer to the orbit, maybe because the whale's back is not flat, and for the earth, it has "the equatorial bulge", the water could refer o space, rock could refer to planets, and so on.
Some of these explanations have been given in commentaries on al-Kafi.
The Imam (a.s.) is duty-bound to say things that are not above or beyond people's comprehension at that time. There could be words omitted for brevity, like how the Quran addresses people and certain things.
The following is a good detailed answer (in Arabic) from the holy Shrine of Imam Husain (a.s.):
And Allah ta'ala knows best
Quranic verses in Sura Yousuf are the strongest evidence in this matter.
Prophet Yousuf told his brothers: Take this shirt of mine and cast it on the face of my father, he will turn clear-sighted. (12:93).
'We have many authentic narrations on the blessings which can be obtained by touching (Masah) of blessed items like Black stone, Zareeh of most humble servants of Allah, Quranic text, etc.
The four main Shia books of Hadeeth are Al-Kafi, Al-Faqeeh, Al-Istibsar and Al-Tahtheeb. All of them are published separately and there is a new edition having all these four books in one set of volumes. Most of the narrations in these books are authentic and the number of Hadeeths in these books is much more than the number of the narrations in all the six Sunni books of Hadeeth ( Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmithi, Ibn Maajah, Abi Dawood, and Nasaa'ee.).
Every Shia scholar studies every Hadeeth and researches the chain of narrators and the meanings of the text as he understands and comes out with his own result about the authenticity and the meaning of it. No one can force his opinion on other scholars as scientific research is free in Shia Islam for every qualified scholar. That is why, we do not believe in closing the gate of Ijtihad and research in every narration.
The expression من ليس له شيخ شيخه الشيطان is not found in the extant hadith collections. It is attributed to some Sufis.
Yes. This Hadeeth of Ghadeer has been narrated by biggest number of companions who witnessed it and heard it from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA). It is more than Mutawatir in Sunni books as well as Shia books.
1. Sibt ibn al-Jawazi said in his book Tathkirat al Khawas (Pg 30 & 31) "All the Ulama of Sirah have unanimously said that the incident of Ghadeer took place when the Prophet (SAWA) returned from Hajjatul Wida when he said in front of 120000 companions : Of whomsoever I am the Maula Ali is the Maula. The full Hadeeth mentions that the Prophet (SAWA) started his sermon "Allah is my Maula and I am the Maula of all Mo'meneen". Then he said am I not more entitled on the Mo'meneen than themselves upon themselves? All said "Yes". He (the Prophet SAWA) : For whomsoever I am his Maula, this Ali is his Maula.
2. Abu Ishaq al Tha'labi mentioned in his Tafseer that when this announcement was spread in different places a man by the name of al Harth ibn al No'man al Fahri came to the Masjid of the Prophet (SAWA) and objected on the announcement of Ghadeer and asked the Prophet (SAWA) : Is it from you or from Allah SWT? The Prophet (SAWA) became angry and his eyes became red and he said : By Allah SWT who is La Ilaha Illahu it his from Allah SWT and not from me.
3. In this Sahih Muslim (Vol 7, Pg 122 & 123) a Hadeeth narrated by Zaid ibn Arqam that the Prophet (SAWA) said in Ghadeer Khum : I am leaving among you two important things ; the first the Book and Allah SWT and my Ahlul Bayt (AS).
4. Ibn Hajar said : Hadeeth al Ghadeer is definitely authentic and there is no doubt about it.
5. An Nasai in al Khasa'is narrated from Zaid bin Arqam Hadeeth al-Ghadeer (Pg 39).
6. It was also narrated by al-Mohib al-Tabari in Thakha'ir al-Oqba.
7. Also in ibn al-Maghazili in al-Manaqib (Pg 29).
8. Also al-Muttaqi-al-Hindi in Kanz al-Ommaal (Vol 1 ; Pg 166)
9. Also al-Qurtubi in his Tafseer (Vol 18 ; Pg 287)
10, Also al-Haakim-al-Hasakani in Shawahid-al-Tanzeel (Vol 1 Pg 158)
Many other Sunni books have narrated Hadeeth al-Ghadee with the frase of Allah is my Mawla and I am Mawla of all believers and forwhom soever I am the Mawla, Ali is his Mawla.
The chain of narration is: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو تَوْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا الْهَيْثَمُ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ حُمَيْدٍ - عَنْ ثَوْرٍ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ مُوسَى، عَنْ طَاوُسٍ،
The first narrator, Tawus, is considered to be Tawus ibn Kaysan, who was born in 30 AH. Since the Prophet (S) passed away in 11 AH, obviously he did not see this directly and was reporting from someone else whose name is not mentioned.
So, from that angle, one could introduce a question mark into the narration.
This narration is in Sunan Abi Dawood (volume 1, page 495). It is in fact against folding hands and it never says that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) folded his hands but it says that the Prophet (SAWA) said: As if I am seeing the Rabbis of Bani Israel putting their right hands on their left Hands in their Prayer.
It is in fact against folding hands in Prayer because it proves that it is a Jewish practice. That is why Sunni Ulama don't mention it to prove folding hands but they mainly mention a narration of Sahl ibn Sa'd in Bukhari (740) saying: People were been ordered to fold their hands during Salah. He never said that the Prophet did that, nor ordered it. People were obviously been ordered by the governments to do so.
Hadeeth Kisa is one of the most authentic Hadeeths in both Sunni and Shia books. It was narrated by more than twenty authentic narrators like Umm Salamah, Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri, Ayisha, Jabir ibn Abdillah Al-Ansari and others. Sunni and Shia books narrated Hadeeth Kisa in its brief version stating that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) called Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain and put on them a cloak (Kisa') and said: O Allah, these are my Ahlul Bayt. He did not allow any of his wives to join them despite the request from Umm Salamah and Ayisha in two different occasions when the same happened in their presence.
Beside this narration, there is another long narration of Hadeeth e Kisaa' by Jaabir ibn Abdillah Al-Ansaari from Fatima (AS) which is been recited by the followers of Ahlul Bayt (AS) in their religious and social gatherings for getting the blessings. This narration of Hadeeth e Kisaa has been narrated by many great scholars with full chain of authentic narrators. In 'Awaalim of Shaikh Abdullah Al-Bahrani from Sayyed Hashim Al-Bahrani, from Sayyed Maajid Al-Bahrani, from Shaikh Hasan ibn Zain Al Abidin (Al-Shaheed the Thani), from Al-Muqaddas Al-Ardabili, from ibn Abd Al-AALI Al-Karaki, from Ali ibn Hilal Al-Jazaeri, from Ahmad ibn Fahad Al-Hilli, from Ali ibn Al-Khaazin Al-Haeri, from Ali ibn Al-Shaheed Al-Awwal, from Al-Shaheed Al-Awwal, from Fakhr Al-Muhaqqiqeen, from his father Hasan ibn Yousuf Al-Allama Hal-Hilli from Ibn Nama Al-Hilli, from Muhammad ibn Idrees Al-Hilli, from ibn Hamza Al-Toosi, from Muhammad ibn Shahr Aashoub, from Al-Tabrasi of al-Ehtijaj, from his Shaikh Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Al-Toosi, from his father Al-Shaikh Al-Toosi from his shaikh Al-Mufeed, from his Shaikh ibn Qawlawayh, from his shaikh Al-Kulaini, from Ali ibn Ibrahim, from Ibrahim ibn Hashim, from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Nasr Al-- Bizanti, from Qasim ibn Yahya Al-Jallaa', from Abi Nassar, from Aban ibn Taghlib, from Jabir ibn Yazeed Al-Jo'fi, from Jabir ibn Abdillah Al-Ansari from Fatima (AS).
Many other great scholars have also narrated this Hadeeth like Fakhr Al-Deen Al-Turaihi in his book Al-Mubtakhab Al-Kabeer, Al-Dailami of al-Irshad in his book Al-Ghurar WAL-Dorar. Al-Husain Al-. Al-Hanafi who is a Sunni Hanafi Aalim has also narrated this Hadeeth.
Writing Hadeeth was officially banned during the governments of Abu Bakr and Umar and Uthman and Bani Omayyah till the time of Umar ibn Abdul Zeez which was on years 99 till 102 after Hijra when he allowed writing Hadeeths and ordered one of Shaikhs working for the Umayyad government ( Ibn Shihab al-Zohri) to write Hadeeths which are accepted by the government that time.
Mussannaf Abdul Razzaq, Mawatta' Malik, al-Imamah wal-Siyasah are among the early books.