Yom Ashura or Ashura (عاشوراء ʻĀshūrā’) is the tenth day of Muḥarram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram, and commemorates the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (October 10, 680 CE). Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the Battle of Karbala.
This narration is not authentic and some Sunni Ulama like Mohammad Al-Jondi of Al-Azhar in Egypt said that it is not a Hadeeth at all.
الدكتور محمد الشحات الجندي، عضو مجمع البحوث الإسلامية: إن مقولة «لا عزاء بعد ثلاثة أيام ليست حديثًا صحيحًا ولم تثبت عن الرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم-.
Listening is not like reciting. Just listening to Ziyarat Ashura does not make you get the great reward of reciting the Ziyarat.
Yes of course. Ziyarat Ashura is a great Ziyarat and it is recommended to recite it every day. Reciting it on behalf of a deceased will make the deceased get great reward as well as the reciter himself.
Hur was in the front of war when he repented and came immediately to Imam Husain (AS). It was a moment of war and there was no time for bringing food or water.
Fasting on the day of Ashura is Makrouh (Disliked). It is called Fasting of Ibn Marjana according narrations from Ahlul Bayt (AS). It is recommended not to eat on the day of Ashura till late afternoon or evening.
'Fasting of day of Arafa is recommended unless it makes you weak to perform the recommended worshiping of the day of Arafa.
There is no problem with that.
May you always be successful
In the time of some of the Imams (A), it seems some of the Shi'a were in this situation also, because advice to them on how to commemorate Ashura comes across sometimes as individual advice.
Even though gathering to mourn Imam Husayn (A) is recommended, and spiritually beneficial, it is not a requirement to attend a specific kind of gathering, and sometimes it is not possible for one reason or another.
So, for instance, you can recite ziyarat to Imam Husayn (A), abstain from worldly activities (as much as is possible), recall what happened on Ashura, wear black, be serious, and engage in private mourning.
Sometimes there is a special sincerity in commemorations that are done alone, because there is no risk of doing them for show or just to do what everyone else is doing.
It is nice, however, if you can share it with someone, ideally in person, or at least virtually.
This is assuming that you do not live with other people who would be willing to commemorate; it is good if you can do a household commemoration, although sometimes that is not an option for some people.
In the end, Imam Husayn (A) died alone on the battlefield, and one can also use the opportunity to empathize with that.
Unfortunately, with the situation we are in now, with lockdowns and covid19, most centres are closed or not functioning at full capacity. Most have turned to online programs.
If you live in an area where physical attendance is allowed, try your best to be present in those gathering and share together your state of mourning with other believers.
If you are in a place where you are restricted, then your only option is to attend a program online, and try to interact as much as possible. You can also create a positive spiritual atmosphere at home as well, so people in the house feel the sadness of Muharram and Safar.
Find alternative ways to serve your Imam (a.s.), and keep the 'azaa culture alive. Cook, and share food with your neighbours, wear black, etc...
All these things, in shaa Allah, will assist us in our ma'rifah towards the Imam (a.s.), and will please them.
With prayers for your success.
There would not be any shar'i problem with changing places, as long as there is no intention in desecrating the sanctity of this holy time of mourning.
It would be advisable, if it is possible, to postpone until after Ashura, and to continue to allocate time for your 'azaa` and dedication in mourning for Imam Husain (a.s.).
With prayers for your success.
Yes we can perform it at home. It is not compulsory to perform it under the sky.
Fasting the day of Ashura is called by our Imams as (The Fast of Ibn Marjana) according to the narrations. Ibn Marjana was the commander of the army of Yazeed who killed Imam Husain (AS).
It is Makrouh (Disliked) to fast that day. Ibn Marjana and his people wanted to celebrate the day of Ashura to make Muslims forget their crime, that it why they paid lot of money to false narrators to fabricate narrations encouraging people to fast and celebrate that day. We have evidence that narrations encouraging fasting on the day of Ashura are fabricated by enemies of Ahlul Bayt (AS).
The recommended on the day of Ashura is to remember the tragedy of Karbala and weep and cry on it and refrain from eating and drinking till after noon. This is called Faqa.
It is permissible but it is strongly disapproved of (makruh) by the Imams. However, it is recommended to eat or drink simply towards the end of the day such that one is not considered fasting, rather than indulging.
It is good to keep in mind that the custom of fasting on Ashura relates to celebrations by the Umayyads over their victory and also false narrations claiming that the day of Ashura was significant for other reasons (apart from the martyrdom of Imam Husayn) which were attempts to deflect attention away from Imam Husayn.