Allah's love to us does not need to be proven after He created us from nothing and granted us life and all bounties of life. Allah (SWT) gave human beings the option and ability to be good or otherwise. Allah does not force us to be good nor to be bad but He helps us if we want to do good and leaves us if we want to do bad. Those who do bad and oppress others will face the result of their deeds while the oppressed will be compensated by Allah for their sufferings.
Allah never sends on His creatures sufferings but He always showers us with His blessings and mercy and bounties. Your sexual desires are your own desires and never imposed on you by Allah. If you feel lonely because of your sexual desires, you should deal with the reason of your loneliness. If you are a follower of the Ahlul Bayt as you wrote, you need to read about their teachings in this matter to really follow them.
1. Life includes tests. Different persons have different tests. Having a child with disability is a test for the parents just like other tests for other persons.
2. Those who are born with disability are also been tested but Allah compensates them with great gifts in this life and mainly hereafter.
Allah The Glorious is just and fair with every one even with the very bad persons and His enemies. He never does injustice to any one even on His enemies. He is The Forgiving and Merciful to His creatures especially the believers who repent and seek forgiveness.
We should not mix between us as human beings and Allah, The Most Merciful. His tributes are very much higher than our understanding. He is The All Knowing, The Absolute Wise, The Most Merciful and The Absolute Just Who never does injustice.
Allah does not like bad deeds and ordered people to avoid and refrain from any bad deed but He does not force people to do good and refrain from bad as He has given every human being the intellect and ability to opt. Allah did not stop Cane from killing his brother Able, nor stopped the criminals from killing the pious. Every one takes his decision on his own and will get the result of his own act.
Allah (SWT) has promised in Quran to respond to the supplications (Your Lord said: Supplicate to me, I will respond to you). (Sura 40, Verse 60).
No supplication can go with out respond as far as it is for a permissible cause. The point is : When is the time that we see the response of our supplications?
We want to see it soon because we don't know the future and we think that it is good for us now, but Allah (SWT) knows everything including the future and the results which will happen if we get what we supplicated for. He knows that some wishes can be harmful under certain circumstances, that is why He does not grant it in the wrong time because He does not want to harm us. Some of our wishes can be delayed to be fulfilled for long time till Allah (SWT) knows the time when it will not be harmful for us to get it. Some wishes can be harmful for us all our life, so, Allah (SWT) grants us His response in the hereafter with great reward and ample bounties. Hadeeth says that when the believer sees the response of his supplications in Paradise, he will wish all his supplications should have been postponed till hereafter.
Believer should continue supplicating all the time and under every circumstance, with full confidence that Allah (SWT) will definitely respond and grant him the best in the suitable time which is known to Allah (SWT).
Allah (SWT) created all His creatures for showering on them His countless bounties and unlimited Mercy. We read in Qur'an: (Except those on whom Your Lord Has bestowed His Mercy, and for that He did create them). (Sura 11, verse 119).
Allah never created people to send them to hellfire, except those insist on criminal acts and continue committing injustice and die on such criminal acts.
Allah, The Most Merciful, The Most Compassionate gives every human being thousands and thousands of chances to believe in thr Truth and do good then enter the Paradise.
Allah (SWT) Has promised every one who believes in Him as The One God to go to Paradise as the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) said: Paradise is the ultimate place for all believers in Allah الجنة للموحدين.
It is not correct the think majority of people since the time of Adam were atheists or non believers. Majority of human beings are believing in The One God which is part of the instinct knowledge even if the cultures and titles are different.
'The Mercy of Allah is much more greater than what we think and He will deal with His creatures with His great Mercy except the enemies of Allah.
Allah (SWT) has promised in Quran to respond to the Du'a (supplication) and there is no Du'a with out response. (Your Lord said: Seek from me, I will respond to you) وقال ربكم ادعوني أستجب لكم(Sura 40, verse 60).
We do not know how and when the respond will come. Allah (SWT) knows the best time and best way to respond to any Du'a. Our expectations are according to what we know, but Allah (SWT) knows everything and He is The Most Merciful, The Absolute Wise, so we should leave it to Him. Our mercy on the oppressed can never be more than Allah's mercy on them. He will definitely compensate them in the best way in the best time.
Thank you for your question. Both well being and difficulty are types of ordeal that a person is tested with, in the same way that wealth and poverty are both tests but in different ways. While difficulties require patience, well being requires thankfulness (which means not only being thankful with the tongue but using their opportunities to fulfill the goals Gid has set out for a human). Those that do fulfill this responsibility will be rightly rewarded in the next life, in the same way that those who are patient through their trials will be rewarded.
The difference in trial is decided by God, who will only put a believer in the best situation for their progression. Fairness here is not that everyone has the same trial, but that everyone is given the best opportunity according to their constitution. A person tested with difficulty may succeed where they would have failed with ease, and vice verca. However, what is more usual in life is that people are tested with a variety of circumstances some of which are difficult and some of which are easy. A person that has no difficulty in life whatsoever is perhaps one who is lead astray, as another function of well being is to distract those with a bad end.
For a deeper look into the philosophy of trial please see these podcasts:
May you always be successful
I will leave this for someone else to answer fully but I just wanted to point out that the grass is always greener on the other side, sometimes some people seem to be enjoying themselves a lot or to "have it all" but in fact they are very unhappy. For instance, there are some people who are exceedingly rich but suffer from drug addiction, loneliness, family breakdown, etc. Does their wealth help them to avoid suffering from poverty? Certainly. Does it bring them full happiness beyond that? Not in and of itself; once a person's basic needs are met, happiness comes from other things.
There are "religious" people who are happy, "religious" people who are unhappy, non-religious people who are happy, non-religious people who are unhappy, etc. It is true that the Muslim world is having a particularly difficult time these days (due to the global economic/political arrangement) but this is something new and not the same throughout time relating to being religious or not.
While it is certainly possible for a practising Muslim to be in a very difficult situation, at least, adhering to shariah will help avoid certain things that can make life worse, such as suffering from alcoholism (inshallah at least it is avoided). Also, faith is usually a resource that people draw on in times of difficulty.
Also it is true that it can be difficult to be a minority, and so being a practising Muslim in a country where you are a minority can add certain stresses, at the same time there are usually some advantages you get from that that others lack even if it seems like everyone else is having an easier time because they don't have to worry about prejudice, etc.
Also there is a difference between being religious in name versus in ethics and principles. Some people call themselves "religious" because they do the outer aspects of Islam (such as reciting prayers on time or fasting) but they do not embrace the ethics and ideals of the Prophet (S), such as kindness, compassion, generosity, humility, forgiveness, standing up for justice, contributing to society, bravery, etc. Generally those values are what make individuals and the people around them happy. Of course one should embrace both the outer aspects of Islam and the ethical or inner aspects.
As for complaining to Allah... it doesn't affect Allah if we complain to Allah. Even if, say, you are fishing and not catching enough fish, and you stand in front of the ocean and complain to the ocean, it doesn't affect the ocean, because the ocean is giant and you are not. And Allah is vaster than the ocean. However it is not healthy for ourselves to be angry at Allah for a long time. Still it is fine and even good to tell Allah that you are having a difficult time or are in pain or are suffering or feel lack and in need of a change. Sometimes Allah just wants us to ask!
Anyway everyone goes through hard times, particularly right now a lot of people are going through tough times, I hope things get better for you if you are having a difficult time. After every winter, there is a spring!
The hardships and tests we face - God willing - refine us not only as human beings but increase our spiritual understanding and capacity to behold the divine. This is one reason why human being agreed to accept the responsibility of free will - with it comes a risk (hellfire) but also great potential.
Ideally the main goal of the material existence (as I understand it) is for human beings to deepen their inherent spiritual understanding as much as possible. A child and an adult may both go to jannah; however, depending on their experiences (as not everyone grows throughout a long lifespan), they may end up with a different inherent capacity to perceive the divine there. (One might equate that with "higher in jennah")
His claim is totally wrong. Allah The Glorious never does injustice on any one and He never force any one to do something then punish him for doing that. This is one of main facts in this existence. Allah does not need any thing, and every injustice is initiated by need existing or thought by the wrong doer. This never exists with Allah (SWT).
Allah created all humans with inner guide to the truth which is the intellect and outer guide who are the prophets and Infallible Imams.
No one is forced to be non Muslim nor a Muslim. Every one has his own decision through his own intellect.