Allah never sends on His creatures sufferings but He always showers us with His blessings and mercy and bounties. Your sexual desires are your own desires and never imposed on you by Allah. If you feel lonely because of your sexual desires, you should deal with the reason of your loneliness. If you are a follower of the Ahlul Bayt as you wrote, you need to read about their teachings in this matter to really follow them.
1. Life includes tests. Different persons have different tests. Having a child with disability is a test for the parents just like other tests for other persons.
2. Those who are born with disability are also been tested but Allah compensates them with great gifts in this life and mainly hereafter.
Allah The Glorious is just and fair with every one even with the very bad persons and His enemies. He never does injustice to any one even on His enemies. He is The Forgiving and Merciful to His creatures especially the believers who repent and seek forgiveness.
We should not mix between us as human beings and Allah, The Most Merciful. His tributes are very much higher than our understanding. He is The All Knowing, The Absolute Wise, The Most Merciful and The Absolute Just Who never does injustice.
Allah does not like bad deeds and ordered people to avoid and refrain from any bad deed but He does not force people to do good and refrain from bad as He has given every human being the intellect and ability to opt. Allah did not stop Cane from killing his brother Able, nor stopped the criminals from killing the pious. Every one takes his decision on his own and will get the result of his own act.
Allah (SWT) has promised in Quran to respond to the supplications (Your Lord said: Supplicate to me, I will respond to you). (Sura 40, Verse 60).
No supplication can go with out respond as far as it is for a permissible cause. The point is : When is the time that we see the response of our supplications?
We want to see it soon because we don't know the future and we think that it is good for us now, but Allah (SWT) knows everything including the future and the results which will happen if we get what we supplicated for. He knows that some wishes can be harmful under certain circumstances, that is why He does not grant it in the wrong time because He does not want to harm us. Some of our wishes can be delayed to be fulfilled for long time till Allah (SWT) knows the time when it will not be harmful for us to get it. Some wishes can be harmful for us all our life, so, Allah (SWT) grants us His response in the hereafter with great reward and ample bounties. Hadeeth says that when the believer sees the response of his supplications in Paradise, he will wish all his supplications should have been postponed till hereafter.
Believer should continue supplicating all the time and under every circumstance, with full confidence that Allah (SWT) will definitely respond and grant him the best in the suitable time which is known to Allah (SWT).
Allah (SWT) created all His creatures for showering on them His countless bounties and unlimited Mercy. We read in Qur'an: (Except those on whom Your Lord Has bestowed His Mercy, and for that He did create them). (Sura 11, verse 119).
Allah never created people to send them to hellfire, except those insist on criminal acts and continue committing injustice and die on such criminal acts.
Allah, The Most Merciful, The Most Compassionate gives every human being thousands and thousands of chances to believe in thr Truth and do good then enter the Paradise.
Allah (SWT) Has promised every one who believes in Him as The One God to go to Paradise as the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) said: Paradise is the ultimate place for all believers in Allah الجنة للموحدين.
It is not correct the think majority of people since the time of Adam were atheists or non believers. Majority of human beings are believing in The One God which is part of the instinct knowledge even if the cultures and titles are different.
'The Mercy of Allah is much more greater than what we think and He will deal with His creatures with His great Mercy except the enemies of Allah.
Allah (SWT) has promised in Quran to respond to the Du'a (supplication) and there is no Du'a with out response. (Your Lord said: Seek from me, I will respond to you) وقال ربكم ادعوني أستجب لكم(Sura 40, verse 60).
We do not know how and when the respond will come. Allah (SWT) knows the best time and best way to respond to any Du'a. Our expectations are according to what we know, but Allah (SWT) knows everything and He is The Most Merciful, The Absolute Wise, so we should leave it to Him. Our mercy on the oppressed can never be more than Allah's mercy on them. He will definitely compensate them in the best way in the best time.
Thank you for your question. Both well being and difficulty are types of ordeal that a person is tested with, in the same way that wealth and poverty are both tests but in different ways. While difficulties require patience, well being requires thankfulness (which means not only being thankful with the tongue but using their opportunities to fulfill the goals Gid has set out for a human). Those that do fulfill this responsibility will be rightly rewarded in the next life, in the same way that those who are patient through their trials will be rewarded.
The difference in trial is decided by God, who will only put a believer in the best situation for their progression. Fairness here is not that everyone has the same trial, but that everyone is given the best opportunity according to their constitution. A person tested with difficulty may succeed where they would have failed with ease, and vice verca. However, what is more usual in life is that people are tested with a variety of circumstances some of which are difficult and some of which are easy. A person that has no difficulty in life whatsoever is perhaps one who is lead astray, as another function of well being is to distract those with a bad end.
For a deeper look into the philosophy of trial please see these podcasts:
May you always be successful
I will leave this for someone else to answer fully but I just wanted to point out that the grass is always greener on the other side, sometimes some people seem to be enjoying themselves a lot or to "have it all" but in fact they are very unhappy. For instance, there are some people who are exceedingly rich but suffer from drug addiction, loneliness, family breakdown, etc. Does their wealth help them to avoid suffering from poverty? Certainly. Does it bring them full happiness beyond that? Not in and of itself; once a person's basic needs are met, happiness comes from other things.
There are "religious" people who are happy, "religious" people who are unhappy, non-religious people who are happy, non-religious people who are unhappy, etc. It is true that the Muslim world is having a particularly difficult time these days (due to the global economic/political arrangement) but this is something new and not the same throughout time relating to being religious or not.
While it is certainly possible for a practising Muslim to be in a very difficult situation, at least, adhering to shariah will help avoid certain things that can make life worse, such as suffering from alcoholism (inshallah at least it is avoided). Also, faith is usually a resource that people draw on in times of difficulty.
Also it is true that it can be difficult to be a minority, and so being a practising Muslim in a country where you are a minority can add certain stresses, at the same time there are usually some advantages you get from that that others lack even if it seems like everyone else is having an easier time because they don't have to worry about prejudice, etc.
Also there is a difference between being religious in name versus in ethics and principles. Some people call themselves "religious" because they do the outer aspects of Islam (such as reciting prayers on time or fasting) but they do not embrace the ethics and ideals of the Prophet (S), such as kindness, compassion, generosity, humility, forgiveness, standing up for justice, contributing to society, bravery, etc. Generally those values are what make individuals and the people around them happy. Of course one should embrace both the outer aspects of Islam and the ethical or inner aspects.
As for complaining to Allah... it doesn't affect Allah if we complain to Allah. Even if, say, you are fishing and not catching enough fish, and you stand in front of the ocean and complain to the ocean, it doesn't affect the ocean, because the ocean is giant and you are not. And Allah is vaster than the ocean. However it is not healthy for ourselves to be angry at Allah for a long time. Still it is fine and even good to tell Allah that you are having a difficult time or are in pain or are suffering or feel lack and in need of a change. Sometimes Allah just wants us to ask!
Anyway everyone goes through hard times, particularly right now a lot of people are going through tough times, I hope things get better for you if you are having a difficult time. After every winter, there is a spring!
The hardships and tests we face - God willing - refine us not only as human beings but increase our spiritual understanding and capacity to behold the divine. This is one reason why human being agreed to accept the responsibility of free will - with it comes a risk (hellfire) but also great potential.
Ideally the main goal of the material existence (as I understand it) is for human beings to deepen their inherent spiritual understanding as much as possible. A child and an adult may both go to jannah; however, depending on their experiences (as not everyone grows throughout a long lifespan), they may end up with a different inherent capacity to perceive the divine there. (One might equate that with "higher in jennah")
His claim is totally wrong. Allah The Glorious never does injustice on any one and He never force any one to do something then punish him for doing that. This is one of main facts in this existence. Allah does not need any thing, and every injustice is initiated by need existing or thought by the wrong doer. This never exists with Allah (SWT).
Allah created all humans with inner guide to the truth which is the intellect and outer guide who are the prophets and Infallible Imams.
No one is forced to be non Muslim nor a Muslim. Every one has his own decision through his own intellect.
Allah is just. However, Allah's justice crosses this world and the next. When we are suffering, there is an aspect due to fate or what Allah has decreed, there is aspect due to Allah's testing people, there is an aspect due to divine punishment, and there is an aspect due to free will and bringing things upon ourselves.
It is often asked why people who are faithless, immoral, or even evil sometimes seem to flourish in this world, whereas oftentimes those who are faithful or good suffer.
First, Allah responds to what people genuinely want and seek (even if people are wrongdoers). Some people only want worldly enjoyment or position even if it harms others, and they attain that. However, as a natural cause and effect relationship, it causes them misery in the afterlife. In fact, it often causes them misery in this life. It is not uncommon for the world's elite to suffer from drug addiction, suicide, anxiety, and the like. Those who acquire wealth by force often have no rest and sometimes even have had to physically move from place to place to avoid being killed. We reap what we sow, even if it takes time.
Personally, the older I get, the more I have seen divine justice enacted upon people in this life, even if it was in cases where I never expected to see it.
In fact, when Allah no longer extends mercy to a person, Allah allows them to do whatever they like in this life, because they reap misery for themselves. This is a form of divine curse or an expression of divine hatred.
Conversely, Allah tries the believers more out of His love, because going through difficulty develops us. This doesn't mean that we should seek difficulty or act helpless and remain in it out of faith - we are meant to strive - but rather that wisdom, compassion, and reliance of God are often born from the challenges we face, not the easy times. Sometimes the darkest times can also be the ones when we see the most light. It is said that the trials of God are like gifts to the believer. It is also said that there are some levels of faith that can only be reached by severe trials such as severe illness.
When a person earns divine punishment, and it will not be forgiven or redressed by intercession, they are punished either in this life or in the next. If we are punished in this life, it will have been a blessing because the punishment in the next is far worse. This is one of the reasons the punishment for the truly evil is saved for the next world. It is narrated that if a believer has sins that require punishment and cannot be erased, Allah will sometimes give that believer a difficult death (that is, a difficult time for the soul to leave the body on its eternal journey) as expiation.
That being said, often what comes across as "punishment" is simply the natural cause of wrong acts, and wrongdoers also suffer the natural consequences of wrong acts in this life. As a very simple example, just to demonstrate the point, an alcoholic is more likely to have marriage problems, get into an accident, harm their health, suffer financial loss, and so forth. This doesn't even need to be ascribed to divine punishment, it is cause and effect, and this is why alcohol is forbidden in Islamic law. It is also important to remember that not all suffering is divine punishment.
Second, we as humans also have free will. Free will is on an individual and social level. The relationship between fate and free will is complicated. In many cases, suffering is caused not by an individual decision but rather by social or political decisions. Allah allocates sustenance to everyone in varying amounts; but when someone is suffering from severe poverty, someone has stolen that sustenance. In this day and age that happens on an individual and mass level eg through inherited social class, nationality and the resources or opportunities it conveys, access to education, institutionalized racism or the acts of major multinational corporations.
There are also laws of cause and effect. Sometimes there is also responsibility on a people as a whole, e.g. a people who accept tyranny in their personal lives, family lives, or communities will also be more likely to accept political tyranny. A people who do not do genuine amr bil marouf (calling to what is good) for issues of social justice and so forth will also suffer from that. These things are mentioned in hadith. It is sad but fair to say that a lot of the suffering in the Muslim-majority world today is not due to lack of resources or individual faults but rather due to political corruption, mismanagement, greed among the elite, and the like. Of course one can also lay blame on things such as colonialism or post-colonialism which led to this or continue to prop up injustice and dictatorships, but at the end of the day we are the only ones who can lift ourselves up.
This is largely more of a modern issue with respect to the Muslim-majority world as in previous centuries the Muslim world was in a much better condition, economically and politically. It is really only in the 19th-20th century that the West skyrocketed to material, technological, and political ascendancy, and this left many Muslims wondering for the first time what had gone wrong or if indeed there was something wrong with Islam itself.
One thing to consider is that, in the past, among Muslims it was common for both the elite and the poor to adhere to Islam and to value faith. Even tyrants gave Islam lip service. However, in the 20th century, a chunk of the financial and political elite in the Muslim world went towards secularization and away from the open practice of Islam, and this gives the impression that somehow being rich or powerful and being unreligious go together. The same can be said about religion in general in the West. However this also is really a modern thing and has not been the case throughout history.
In any case, we as humans need to get our act together; when we can work in unison for the greater good, we are likely for flourish. This is true for the faithful and this is true for the faithless. It is true for the Muslim and it is true for the person of any other faith.
In short, Islam teaches us to work for the well-being of ourselves and others in this life, and in the next. There is no merit to suffering for the sake of suffering. Many times people attribute their suffering to Allah or fate whereas they really could have done something to change their circumstances but were afraid to or psychologically unable to make the shift. We should use whatever resources we have (inner, outer, psychological, practical, spiritual) to uplift ourselves and others. We can and should also pray that Allah provides sustenance, ease, health, or whatever it is that we need.
Also it is good to remember that many faithful and ethical people do quite well financially and materially! So not everyone is suffering. But it is a good question to address.