The domestic dog is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore. The dog was the first species to be domesticated and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.
According to Islam, it is not ideal to have a pet dog, and it is better in terms of Islamic etiquette not to have a dog in the house, but it is not forbidden to have one.
However, if you have a dog in the house, you should be sure to observe Islamic rules of cleanliness for prayer. For instance, before praying salat, wash any area of yourself that the dog might have been licking or if the dog came into contact you while it was wet. When praying salat, avoid praying directly on the floor and instead pray on top of something (like a prayer rug or, if you do not have one, a towel or mat or something similar), and put it away when you are not using it so the dog cannot get to it. Also, be sure your clothes do not have dog hair on them and have not been licked by the dog or touched by a wet dog; if your dog is very affectionate, you may wish to have a separate pair of clothes that you only wear for salat (if this is possible). Also, if your family is very casual about dishes and where the dog goes, be sure the dishes you use have not been, ahem, slobbered on, licked, etc. (Some people are very strict about these things and some people are casual, that is why I am mentioning it)
Yes, this is inconvenient, which is one of the reasons it is better not to have a dog in the house! But you can still practice Islam and all aspects of Islam with or without a dog present.
Dog is Najis whether it is used in hunting or guarding or otherwise.
Islam does not say that it is not allowed to have a dog as a pet, but it clearly says that dog is Najis and you must avoid any Najis item, otherwise your Prayers might be invalid if your cloth or body is Najis.
Hunting and guarding dogs are out of home usually, so there is no risk of Najasah on you from such dogs, but when the dog is at home as a pet , the risk is there.
Yes, but it is better if it can stay outside (such as in a dog house, if that is possible on your property; these days, they do have outdoor heaters for animals if that is a possibility).
I am sure you are familiar with the hadith saying that having a dog inside affects acceptance of prayers; Allah knows best. Of course, we are also supposed to be compassionate, and it is not compassionate to let it freeze to death!
Yes you can interact with it and train it.
Yes, be sure to observe taharah for salat and any other necessary things such as dishes.
People have had dogs as work animals for centuries, and even the Ashab al-Kahf had a dog around them. As someone once said, it is not the dog's fault that it is najis!
It has been reported in several Islamic sources that the Prophet have said angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or paintings and sculptures of living beings (humans and animals). These words seems to indicate that keeping a dog in the house is discouraged in Islam but not a prohibition. It has also been reported that there is no problem in having hunting and shepherd dogs. What can be concluded is therefore the permissibility of keeping dogs in gardens or outside home although it is disliked to keep them in the house. Obviously, if the presence of a dog in the house would cause excessive hardships related to hygienic issues or matters of ritual purity, keeping them in the house would become impermissible.
With prayers for your success.
Yes, there is no problem in praying there. Everything is pure until proven otherwise, in this case, you have to have seen the impurities of the dog being transferred to you, your clothes you’re praying in or the place you’re praying.