Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, and thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology.Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. As a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory.
There is an article entitled 'The Implications of Unbelief: Tracing the Emergence of Distinctly Shi'i Notions Regarding the Food and Impurity of Non-Muslims', by David Freidenreich, published in 'Islamic Law and Society', Vol. 18, published by Brill. This traces the development of Shi'i fiqh, and makes the point that the particular development of these rules developed in the 5th/11th century; i.e. the matter was much less clear prior to this era. It would require a study of the socio-political background to the development of this fiqh, in order to understand further what brought about this development. There are also a number of contradictory narrations in Shi'i sources regarding these rulings. Incidentally, Hindus also have rulings on purity with regard to non-Hindus.
The goal of istikhara, as presented in hadith, is to seek divine wisdom for what path we should take. So, from that angle, the goal of istikhara is not to see how someone's character will be in a marriage.
However, some scholars who have a lot of experience performing istikharas might sometimes be able to offer some insights on the matter, especially if it is glaringly apparent.
When they put a condition that a person is allowed one account only, then you can not break this condition to get reward more than what has been set by the company.
Knowledge is for all human beings and no one has right to prevent knowledge, but we are not allowed to cause harm to others.
It is recommended to look like happy and smiling even if you are unhappy. The Hadeeth describes the believer as ( His sadness is inside his heart, and his face is always pleasant and smiling حزنه في قلبه وبِشره في وجهه
Torturing or harming animals is not allowed in Islam as we have Hadeeth that a Muslim woman will be punished because she tortured a cat and kept it hungry.
Drug testing can be to save life of human beings but some times it is not for saving life.
It is allowed to use animals in drug testing if it was related to saving human life, but every effort must be done to minimize the suffering of the animals.
It depends on what you mean by 'judge'. If it were impermissible to judge others, there would be no judiciary, and no criminals would be brought to court and justice would not be done for victims of crimes. There is a fine line between being bigoted or prejudiced, and using what insight Allah (swt) has blessed you with to assess people. There are many ahadith about the necessity for choosing your spouse carefully or choosing your friends carefully. This requires a judgement of someone's personality. If we did not judge at all, then people could have criminals for friends and non-believers for spouses. Children would be raised with no moral compass and would be allowed to do whatever they wanted because the parents would feel they were judging them if they tried to establish boundaries for them. When seeking knowledge, a person would not 'judge' between good teachers and bad teachers, and would simply go to anybody to try to study. If by 'judge' you mean 'condemn someone without evidence', then that is not permissible; or even if someone is a criminal, maybe we should not look down on them and think we are superior to them, because we don't know what their circumstances were in life that led them to commit crimes. Nevertheless, they must still pay for their crimes. However, some people are deliberately malicious and have evil intentions towards others. If others forgive their evil actions and evil intentions because they think they are 'judging' them, then this allows corruption to prevail.
We do not know about others but very little. We don't know their intentions and what they think. Our judgement is based on incomplete knowledge, that is why it is inaccurate.
We judge what we see obviously with out doubt, whether good or bad. We can't judge people according to what we hear about them.
Islam does not allow criticizing people in public but only under very limited circumstances e.g. a sinner who insists on sinning openly in a way which can misguide others. The Hadeeth says: He who advises you in secret has respected you, and he who advises you in public has disrespected you.
It is not ethical to openly criticize a Muslim woman for he un Islamic dress unless she been advised properly and insisted on doing wrong and her sinful acts can cause harm to others, then warning people from her bad deeds can be preventive.