Destiny, sometimes referred to as fate (from Latin fatum – destiny), is a predetermined course of events. It may be conceived as a predetermined future, whether in general or of an individual.
1. We have in many Hadeeths that Allah has created the Qalam (The Pen), and the Qalam has been ordered by Allah to write what will be happening till the Day of Judgement.
2. Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.) has been asked about this verse: ن والقلم (Noon Wal Qalam). He said Noon was a river in the Paradise,White more than the ice and sweet more sweet than the Honey. Allah ordered the river to be ink, then Allah put a tree and told that tree to become Qalam (A Pen) then Allah ordered the pen (Qalam) to write. The Qalam asked: What shall I write? Allah replied: Write whatever will be happening till the day of Judgement. The Qalam wrote according to the order of Allah then it was silent. Allah ordered: Do not talk till the designated time means the day of Judgement. (Elal Al-Shara’e’, علل الشرائع Page 402.
3. Another Hadeeth from Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.) when he was been asked about Noon Wal Qalam. He says: Noor was a river in the Paradise. Allah ordered the river to be frozen. It became frozen then it became ink. Allah told the Qalam (the Pen): Write. The pen wrote in the preserved board –Lawh Al-Mahfoudh اللوح المحفوظ . The Pen wrote whatever was happening and whatever will happen till the day of Judgement. The ink was ink from Noor (Light) and the Qalam (the Pen) was a Pen from Noor (Light) & Lawh (the Board) was Board from Light. معاني الأخبار Ma’aani Al-Akhbar Page 23.
4. In Tafseer Ali-Ibn Ibrahim Volume 2 Page 379, there is a narration from Abdul Rahim Al Qaseer who said: I asked Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.) about Noon Wal Qalam. Imam said: Allah has created the Qalam (the Pen) from a tree in the Paradise called “Al Khuld”. then Allah told a river in the Paradise to be ink. The river became frozen, and it was more white than the ice and more sweet than the Honey. Then Allah ordered the Qalam (the Pen) to write. The Qalam said “O my Lord What shall I write”. Allah Ordered the Qalam to write whatever existing and whatever will happen till the day of judgement.
5. In Tafseer Ali Ibn Ibrahim Volume 2 Page 198 , there is a narration from Hisham narrating from Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.) saying the first which Allah created is Al-Qalam. Then Allah ordered the Qalam : أُكتُب Write. The Qalam (the Pen) wrote what was going on and what will happen till the day of Judgement.
6. We also have narrations about the meaning of Noon and the meaning of Qalam. A narration from Imam Moosa Al-Kadhim (a.s.) which was narrated by Muhammed Ibn Al-Fadheel . He said I asked Imam Moosa Al-Kazim (a.s.) about Noon Wal Qalam Verse he said: Noon is a name of the Messenger of Allah, and Al-Qalam is name for Ameerul Momeneen Ali (a.s.).
It is really difficult for us human beings to know what aspects of fate are unchangeable and which are changeable as this knowledge belongs to Allah. However, hadith say that some unwanted things which are fated can be changed by prayer (du'a) or good acts (such as charity). God knows best.
Here are some thoughts on that: https://www.al-islam.org/ask/can-dua-change-your-taqdeer-and-fate
Committing suicide is a major sin in Islam because it comes as a result of losing hope in the mercy of Allah which is itself a major sin, and it is a crime of killing which is another major sin. Nevertheless, those who die during committing major sins, remain Muslims and we must perform on their dead bodies all rituals which must perform on any Muslim who dies e.g. Ghusl of the dead body, Kafan and burial in Muslim grave yard.
Allah (SWT) knows what is their hearts and He deals with them. We pray for all the believers to get the Mercy of Allah (SWT).
Allah says in the Quran that no one will bear the burden of another. We are all responsible for our deeds.
It is not healthy to go through life with a sense of pre-destination that one will go to hell, because that can easily become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Sometimes some people are irresponsible when they talk about illegitimate children and either say things without thinking, or else they don't critically examine the texts they are talking about and quote them without thinking or comparing or examining them closely. It perhaps doesn't occur to them that some of the people sitting there listening are not of legitimate birth. There should be more responsibility in discussing these things so that people do not go around worrying they will go to hell because of what their forebears did.
In Usul al-Kafi Vol. 1 (available from WOFIS in Iran), Imam 'Ali (as) explains that the decree is not finalised until the actual moment that it is brought into existence. Up until that time, there is room for the decree to be changed, or withheld. It is a key teaching from the Ahl al-Bayt (as) that you can have a living and dynamic relationship with Allah (swt) and that du'a, as well as other actions, can alter what is decreed. I know of the expression in the Middle East where they say 'the name of your spouse is written on your forehead', which sounds like an unchangeable destiny, but through du'a you may change that name.
Yes. Du'a can change many things in our life and make it much better. Du'a can make you marry a better person and can make your life happier. Many destined things can be changed by Du'a and good deeds or can be worsened by bad deeds.
Tablet of Destiny اللوح المحفوظ (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfoodh) has what Allah The Glorious Has written for us which is unchangeable like our parents, relatives, tribe, place of birth, color of eyes and skin etc.
Such matters in our life are fixed in the Tablet of Destiny (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfoodh) but it does not make any change nor effect on us on the Day of Judgment.
Our life span, our income, our health can be changed according to our deeds, as all are in the (Tablet of Mahw and Ithbaat) (omitting or confirming). This tablet is not Al-Lawh Al-Mahfoodh which is unchangeable.