Politics is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources. The academic study of politics is referred to as political science.
Politics is a multifaceted word.
as salam alaikum
"Nahj al-Balaghah" contains many letter of Imam Ali dealing with political issues that at the same time undeline the importance of faith and piety.
With prayers for your success.
Muslim public officer is obliged and responsible as a Muslim to serve his country and society in every possible way provided he does not take part or support injustice, discrimination and any unlawful act. Things which are legal in non Muslim countries but forbidden in Islam like abortion, alcohol, etc, must be avoided by the Muslim officer. You can leave it for other officers who do not have religious obligations against it.
Haraam is Haraam whether you are an officer or not. We as Muslims are responsible to avoid Haraam in every possible way.
This is really a personal question. Some people thrive on engaging with these social issues, whereas others do not. Insofar as it does not harm anyone, it is good to be self-aware and acknowledge what is beneficial and harmful for ourselves and our faith, and then attempt to live in a such a way that is beneficial for our peace of mind and faith. This would include decisions on where to live, where to work, and who to socialize with. Certainly, there are enough Muslims engaging with these issues today, and so it isn't necessary for every single Muslim to do it.
Secular humanism can a complicated matter, since it is heavily involved in the educational system in some countries, and most people adopt the dominant beliefs of their country and integrate them into their religious views. Of course, secular humanism has good and bad points like everything else. When one considers these ideas analytically rather than just absorbing them, it can deepen one's faith, but, again, that is personal! Do keep in mind that the Prophet lived in a society that did not support the views he was teaching and yet Islam took root there.
As Muslims, we are encouraged to be aware of the world around us. However, in this day and age, many people suffer from information overload. It simply isn't possible or healthy to follow every issue all the time. It is good to be selective in what one wants to focus on - not to have a biased or slanted view of the world (as happens often) but simply in order to use one's time and mental energy well. Social media is usually the cause of this overload, and it is easy to regulate one's use of social media.
The Prophets of God were divinely appointed and tasked with bringing people to the path of righteousness, honesty and integrity. They were not known to be manipualtive or believe that the end justifies the means as is common in politics.
A good example is that of Prophet Yusuf (a) who suffered from the consequences of the cunning conduct of some women of Egypt.
So when he saw that his shirt was torn from behind, he said, ‘This is [a case] of you women’s guile! Your guile is indeed great! (Surah Yusuf, Verse 28)
The way he dealt with that trial is exemplary. Later, when he acquired political power, he continued to exhibit the just and righteous conduct that was suitable for a Divinely appointed leader.
There is a really well-made multi-episode TV serial on the life of Prophet Yusuf (a) that I would recommend you watch.