Satan, also known as the Devil, is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin or falsehood. In Christianity and Islam, he is usually seen as either a fallen angel or a jinn, who used to possess great piety and beauty, but rebelled against God, who nevertheless allows him temporary power over the fallen world and a host of demons. In Judaism, Satan is typically regarded as a metaphor for the yetzer hara, or "evil inclination", or as an agent subservient to God.
Adam (AS) is a prophet and every prophet is infallible. Adam (AS) did not commit any sin at all. He was not given an obligatory order to avoid that tree but was just been advised as a good advise to follow. It was the best for Adam (AS) to avoid that tree but it was never an order to him to do so. We need to distinguish between the order and the advice.
Translations of Quranic meanings are not accurate and some translations are misguiding by translating the advice as an order.
'Shaitan swore by Allah to Adam and Eve that: I am a well wishes, sincerely advising you (Sura 7, verse 21)
Adam (AS) never thought that any one can swear wrongly by the name of Allah.
He thought that it was a sincere advice, and he did not go against any obligatory order from Allah (SWT).
There is no theological reason why it is impossible to see Shaytan, although most people do not see Shaytan on a regular basis.
However, how does your friend know it is Shaytan, specifically? Is he arriving with an ID card? What about just garden-variety shayateen?
Basically there is no way to prove things which are not objectively measurable. That is, there is no way to prove he is seeing Shaytan and there is no way to prove that he is not. All you can say is that he sees something, and this is what he understands it to be.
It is said that doing wrong acts leaves an ugly imprint on the soul which becomes manifest in the hereafter. For this reason, some mystics are said to be able to see people's true natures. So perhaps this might also be what he is seeing.
I might be suspicious of the clause "whenever someone does something wrong according to Islam", because sometimes people do things that are ethically wrong but are not obviously forbidden. For instance, it is allowed to buy a knife. However, if I buy a knife to murder someone, this is very wrong. Still, it would not be obvious from my purchase that I am committing a sin.
Similarly, we do not always know when someone is doing something wrong. For instance, someone might be lying or trying to flatter someone in order to take advantage of them, but we do not always know it. Along the same lines, we don't usually know if someone is secretly breaking their fast or committing other hidden sins.
(Of course if he is seeing Shaytan in these cases, it is a different story.)
Anyway, most people do not require Shaytan to do wrong things as we are quite capable of doing them ourselves without him.
There is nothing in Islam that connects 666 with the devil. The symbolism between 666 and the devil developed in history among Christians over time. There is a reasonably comprehensive discussion of this on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/666_(number)
Still, it is unusual if you are seeing that everywhere. You should be sure it is not just observer bias. For instance, a person might see many numbers in one day but pay more attention to that number because it is meaningful and a little scary. If it is really showing up everywhere (for instance, several times a day in random places) and an objective observer would agree with it, that is definitely weird, although it's hard to say what that might mean.
Anyway, it seems like the underlying root of your question is whether you are just having bad luck of an ordinary kind, or whether there is something metaphysically unhealthy going on (for instance, the Qur'an discusses the evil eye).
Bad luck can indeed just sometimes be ordinary and due to decisions that don't work out (such as an investment or job that doesn't work out), the everyday travails of life (needing expensive dental work), or circumstances out of our control (such as how the coronavirus has affected the global economy).
(This is apart from genuinely bad choices which lead to bad results, but I'll assume that's not your case here.)
Sometimes what appears as bad luck is also a way that God guides us to do something else through fate. For instance, I try as hard as I can, but I can't get a job in a certain city or field, so I get a job in a different city or field, and this is par of my fate and a way of moving me on to something else. So, is it possible you are being guided towards something else?
And sometimes there are spiritual/metaphysical components, such as the evil eye, although that is less common. Anyway, if that is something you are concerned about, you could discuss it with a religious scholar who has knowledge of these things and who is trustworthy and see if they have any thoughts on your situation.
Also, don't forget, if you aren't doing so already, there are du'as and surahs you can recite to seek an increase in sustenance from Allah, for instance, Surah al-Waq'iah on Thursday nights. You can read more on duas.org.
Hope things get better for you!
This question touches on the nature of reality - for instance, are thoughts part of reality?
In the material world, one's thoughts and intentions are not visible or "real" in the same way that a brick or truck is real.
However, in the hereafter, one's thoughts and intention will be made manifest so everyone can see them. (Thus, everyone will be able to read what was on other people's minds the same way they would see a brick or a truck here.) Therefore, they have an objective reality which we do not see directly.
Beings such as angels or Shaytan which are occupying a different aspect of reality (for instance, coming and going from the heavens) or which are of a different construction may be able to see the realities of our thoughts and intentions. (If the angels could not see your intentions, how could they write down that you should have extra reward when you are tempted to do a wrong deed but abstain?)
To my understanding, this is not about special permission from Allah but rather being on a different "wavelength" of reality or having different senses, in the same way that some animals can hear certain frequencies that humans cannot.
In any case, the way that the universe is created is part of the divine plan, so we should assume there is divine wisdom behind it.
Knowing what is in the mind of others is part of 'Elm al-Ghayb ( Knoweldge of the unseen) which is gifted by Allah (SWT) to His humble servants according to different degrees depending on the level of the humbleness of the servant.
The Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) are gifted what Allah Has gifted them from 'Elm al-Ghayb. Even pious believers can know the mind of some person under curtain circumstances. The Hadeeth says: Beware of the deep sight of the believer, as he is guided by the Noor of Allah.
Real piousness opens the gates of facts of life to the pious servant of Allah (SAWA).
Satan does not know our intentions but whispers to people to misguide and harm them.
This is a false narration which was fabricated by liars.
Shaytan has no effect on the Prophets and their successors. ( Verily, He ( Shayan) has no power over those who believe and rely on their Lord) Sura 16, Verse 99.
Shaytan is the devil whether from Jinns or humans. We read in Quran (Sura 6, Verse 112): And so, We have let for every Prophet, devils of Humans and Jinns, instigating one another with adorned talk by deception.
This means that there are devils frm Jinn and devils from humans.
Iblis is that Jinn who refused to prostrate to Adam and disobeyed Allah's order and cheated Adam and Eve.
Iblis is Shaytan but human devils are not Iblis, so, Shaytan is more general than Iblis.
May Allah (SWT) protect and save us all from every Shaytan.
You can find out a lot about this on-line. The Jewish Encylcopedia says: "The fact that Azazel occupied a place in Mandæan, Sabean, and Arabian mythology (see Brandt, "Mandäische Theologie," pp. 197, 198; Norberg's "Onomasticon," p. 31; Reland's "De Religione Mohammedanarum," p. 89; Kamus, s.v. "Azazel" [demon identical with Satan]; Delitzsch, "Zeitsch. f. Kirchl. Wissensch. u. Leben," 1880, p. 182), renders it probable that Azazel was a degraded Babylonian deity. Origen ("Contra Celsum," vi. 43) identifies Azazel with Satan; Pirḳe R. El. (l.c.) with Samael; and the Zohar Aḥare Mot, following Naḥmanides, with the spirit of Esau or heathenism; still, while one of the chief demons in the Cabala, he never attained in the doctrinal system of Judaism a position similar to that of Satan."
A lot of things are said about what is and is not possible regarding dreams about Ahl al-Bayt (A), however, as far as I know, most of them have no basis.
It is possible for the Shaytan to appear as something he is not; in fact, the main feature of Shaytan is deception.
However, even if you were dreaming about something other than Ahl al-Bayt, there are a lot of things between Ahl al-Bayt and Shaytan that you could have been dreaming about. (Including your own subconscious!)
If, in your dream, the being told you to do something evil or which you know is wrong, it is good to ignore it. It doesn't really matter where it came from. It could have been Shaytan or something else.
If it told you to do something good, it is good to accept it.
If it told you something else, you can also look into it and see if it is a beneficial or destructive thing.
If it just stood there and didn't do anything, then it doesn't really matter - all you can say is, you don't know.
So, I don't think you should worry too much about Shaytan being in your dreams. While it is good to be conscious of Shaytan's existence, it is not good to get too paranoid about it (indeed, that could also be a trick of Shaytan!). I think Shaytan is probably busy in other places and maybe doesn't have too much time for dreams unless there is some very specific reason why you think this is the case.
(This is assuming you actually had a dream about this and are not just asking in general)
It is said that the garden that Adam and Eve were in was a different garden than the one that people to go eternally in the afterlife.
Allameh Tabataba'i brings up this question in Tafsir al-Mizan (available online) in the section on narrations 2:35-39 and discusses it in light of the narrations. For more elaboration on this question, as well as relevant narrations, where the garden might have been, and so forth, you can read that section.
I have not come across the idea that the angel Mika'il keeps the devil out of heaven in mainstream Shi'i or Sunni texts.
Also, the Qur'an says that God Himself threw the Shaytan (the devil) out of heaven. This is not to say that an angel could not have been involved; however, the Qur'an does portray it as being directly between God and Shaytan. It also implies that Shaytan accepted being thrown out insofar as Shaytan swore to misguide human beings until the end of time (and this oath implies that he is not trying to return to heaven).
Of course, God knows best!
A summary of what the angel Mika'il does as per Islamic texts can be found here: https://www.al-islam.org/ask/topics/4478/questions-about-Angel
The Qur'an mentions two types of prostration: (a) prostration as a form of worship and obedience (whether it be literal, as in during prayer; or figurative), and (b) prostration for reasons other than worship (for instance, in some cultures, it was/is a gesture of respect).
Qur'an 2:34, 17:16, and 20:116 say that Allah ordered Shaytan (Iblis) to prostrate to Adam. It literally says "to Adam", and I see no reason why it shouldn't be taken at face value rather than looking for a sideways interpretation. Obviously, Allah is not commanding Shaytan to worship Adam but rather it is a gesture of humility and an acknowledgment of the potential of the human being to ascend higher than the angels. It may also have been a test for Shaytan to prove his inner nature because, up until then, he had been seen as an excellent worshipper.
(Maybe it was also a gesture of service, in that some of the angels, who were also ordered to prostrate to Adam, are assigned to serve people - for instance, in recording the deeds of people. Some people also hold it was out of reverence for the position of the Prophet Muhammad and his Ahl al-Bayt who would be born from Adam.)
Anyway, all of this appears to have occurred outside the earthly realm. Some also say that "Adam" here refers to humanity as an archetype as a whole, as existing outside this world, and not the living, breathing human being. So, while we picture this as Shaytan getting onto his hands and knees and performing what we consider to be sajda to Adam as a human being, it may have been somewhat different. So for this reason also, it isn't really worthwhile to differentiate between "sajda to" or "sajda in front of".
The Qur'an does not specifically say that sajda is only for Allah. Instead, it says that everything in the heavens and earth already does sadja to Allah, willingly or unwillingly (13:52, etc.). This can be taken to mean literal sajda as well as metaphorical. That is, all created beings are compelled to follow the divine decree and no created being can decide it is outside of Allah's control. Most creations willingly worship Allah, although human beings have the free will to worship Allah or other things (and we have the free will to perform sajda to Allah or not perform sajda to Allah). For this reason, the Qur'an tells people not to do sadja to the sun and the moon, and instead tells people to do sajda to Allah who is the creator of the sun and the moon.
However, according to Islamic law, it is not permissible for human beings to do sadja to other Allah. This is derived from Qur'an and hadith.